Difference Between Adrenergic and Cholinergic

Adrenergic and cholinergic are two pathways of the autonomous nervous system of our body that controls all the involuntary work of the body. Their differences are part of the body’s balancing system.

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Key Takeaways

  1. Adrenergic receptors respond to neurotransmitters like adrenaline and noradrenaline, playing a role in the fight-or-flight response.
  2. Cholinergic receptors respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in various physiological processes, including muscle contraction and memory formation.
  3. Both adrenergic and cholinergic receptors are essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system, but they have distinct roles and effects on the body.

Adrenergic vs Cholinergic

The difference between adrenergic and cholinergic pathway is that adrenergic pathway involves the use of neurotransmitters adrenaline and noradrenaline while cholinergic pathway involves the use of acetylcholine neurotransmitter.

Adrenergic vs Cholinergic

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Another key difference between them is that adrenergic pathway is associated with Sympathetic Nervous System while cholinergic pathway is associated with parasympathetic pathway.  

Furthermore, sympathetic nervous system related to the adrenergic pathway stimulates the heart by increasing its activity while parasympathetic nerves related to cholinergic pathway down regulates the heart’s activity.

There are basically two types of adrenergic nerve receptor, they are alpha and beta receptors while cholinergic nerve receptors are of two types, nicotinic and muscarinic.

Adrenergic receptors are G-protein bound receptors while cholinergic receptors are inotropic and metabotropic.

Adrenergic pathway is responsible for the fight or flight response by releasing the catecholamines adrenalin from the adrenal gland whereas cholinergic pathway is in charge of the digest and rest response.


 

Comparison Table

Parameter of ComparisonAdrenergicCholinergic
Part of which Nervous SystemSympathetic Nervous SystemParasympathetic Nervous System
Associated NeurotransmitterAdrenaline and noradrenalineAcetylcholine
Effect on heartStimulates faster activityDown regulates activity
TypesAlpha and BetaNicotinic and muscarinic
Working of ReceptorG-protein coupled receptorIntropic-ligand gated and metabotropic receptors

 

What is Adrenergic?

Adrenergic nerves are a part of the Sympathetic nervous system that houses the adrenergic receptors. These are G-protein coupled receptors that bind with a number of catecholamines that are released from the adrenal gland.

The two main neurotransmitters associated with adrenergic receptor binding are epinephrine or adrenaline and norepinephrine or noradrenaline. These are also responsible for the bodies fight or flight response.

When the sympathetic nervous endings in the heart bind with these neurotransmitters, they increase the heart’s activity by increasing heart rate and myocardial contractibility along with the conduction velocity.

Apart from their effect on heart, they also improve temporary performance of the body by directing blood from unimportant organs to skeletal muscles. Other effects include dilation of pupils, increasing blood pressure, expanding the lung cavity, etc. 

Adrenergic receptors are of two type’s alpha and beta, which are further divided based on their function and effect on the body. Adrenaline when binds to these receptors cause vasoconstriction with alpha and vasodilation with beta receptor.

adrenergic 1
 

What is Cholinergic?

Cholinergic pathway is related to the parasympathetic nervous system that involves the functions of cholinergic receptors. These receptors are regarded as intropic and metabotropic and are activated by the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh).

Acetylcholine neurotransmitters bind to the muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, the two main cholinergic receptors to carry out its functions. The cholinergic system drives the digest and rest response of the body.

The vagus or the parasympathetic nervous ending in the heart are responsible for the cholinergic effects on it. When Acetylcholine binds to these receptors in the heart, they are responsible for down regulating the heart’s functions.

This effect of lowering heart beat and blood pressure by acetylcholine binding is a balancing act of the body. Other effects of acetylcholine include dilating blood vessels, increasing bodily secretions and smooth muscle contraction.

These receptors are found all over the body but mainly in the target organs such as sensory glands, respiratory tracts, heart and eyes and gastro-intestinal tract. They are also found in the somatic efferent nerves in the skeletal muscles.

Cholinergic receptors are part of both Somatic and Autonomic nervous system and are further divided into Nicotinic and Muscarinic receptors. Nicotinic receptors bind to nicotine and muscarinic receptors binds to muscarine.  

cholinergic

Main Differences Between Adrenergic and Cholinergic

  1. The main difference between adrenergic and cholinergic is that adrenergic involves the use of neurotransmitter adrenaline and noradrenalin whereas cholinergic involves the use of neurotransmitter Acetylcholine.
  2. Another key difference is that adrenergic receptors are present in sympathetic nervous system while cholinergic receptors are present in parasympathetic nervous system.
  3. Adrenergic receptor binding induces improved activity of the heart and overall body performance while cholinergic receptor binding is responsible for down regulating this effect.
  4. Adrenergic receptors are of two types i.e. alpha and beta receptors while the two types of cholinergic receptors are nicotinic and muscarinic receptor.
  5. Adrenergic receptor works by G-protein coupling while Cholinergic are intropic-ligand gated and metabotropic receptors.

References
  1. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/ajplegacy.1962.202.5.872
  2. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/132/3422/301.abstract
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