The word ‘after’, as elaborated by the Cambridge English dictionary is a primarily used preposition by English writers and speakers to describe later in position, place, or time. ‘Afterward’ on the other hand, is practically labeled as the synonym of the former word by Cambridge and Oxford, but the usage of this word is limited to its functionality as an adverb. Both the terms are often used interchangeably but there are some fine differences between them that change the functionality of the sentence in which they are being used.
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After vs Afterward
The main difference between After and Afterward is that ‘After’ is used usually as a preposition when denoting a place or time or position of the subject with respect to something else. For example; Lang Avenue comes after the departmental store across Raymond street. This statement highlights the position of the subject with respect to an object. Whereas, ‘afterward’ is never used as a preposition. It is limited to adverb functionality.
These words are very similar when it comes to their fundamental meaning. Native English speakers often mix up and interchange these words to make some common grammatical mistakes. The word ‘after’ is used to specify the position of the subject, and the term is used to generalize the time span and position “not” specifically. In simple terms, it holds multimodal usage depending on the sentence and is a generalized term for specifying a position with respect to something else.
Afterward or afterwards on the other hand is an adverb that helps the verb to describe itself specifically and accurately. For example; ‘I am sleeping, will do my homework afterwards’ in this sentence the subject specifies that homework is absolutely the last thing he will be doing with respect to the verb ‘sleeping’.
Comparison Table Between After and Afterward
|Parameters of Comparison||After||Afterward|
|Function||After is used primarily as a preposition to describe the subject or noun. But it has many other functionalities depending upon requirement.||Afterward is used only as an adverb to accurately describe the action verb used in a sentence.|
|Mode of functionality||Primarily as a preposition. Also used as an adverb, conjunction, adjective, verbal auxiliary or a noun.||Used only as an adverb.|
|Inclusion of affixes||No affixes are used in this word.||The suffix “ward” is used in this word.|
|Pronunciation||UK: ˈɑːf.tər, US: ˈæf.tɚ||UK: ˈɑːf.tə.wəd ,US: ˈæf.tɚ.wɚd|
|Usage in sentence||Preposition usage with respect to later time; Let’s visit Tokyo after we graduate.||Adverb usage in a sentence; We had tea, and afterward we sat in the garden for a while.|
What is After?
After (etymology: Old English æfter, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch achter) is a multi-functional grammatical word which according to the Oxford dictionary means, ‘later than something; the following something in time’. It has got another meaning which actually mentions the position and place rather than time ie: ‘next to and following somebody/something in order or importance’.
This word can alternatively function as a conjunction to connect sentences or colloquially as an adverb by the Native speakers. Depending on the requirements of place, time or maybe gluing few sentences ornamentally, this word is used quite a lot in both written and spoken English. According to the international OEC (Oxford English Corpus) ranking, the word ‘after’ is the 82nd most used word and is labeled as one of the most used prepositions throughout the world of English speakers.
What is Afterward?
Technically a synonym of the above-discussed word, afterward (Old English æfterwearde from æft “after” (see aft) + -weard suffix) is a commonly used adverb, plus it has a suffix called ‘ward’ in it. Well, there is actually a minute difference between the literal meanings of after and afterward. When we take consideration of only time, after refers to a more generalized description whereas, afterward specifies a proper and immediate time, understanding this with an example would be easier.
Eg: I will buy a car after I graduate. In this sentence, ‘after’ specifies that the subject will buy a car anytime once his graduation is done. But, if the sentence goes as, ‘I will complete my graduation and buy a car afterwards’, here the word ‘afterward/s’ is highlighting the fact that the subject will immediately buy a car as soon as he completes his graduation.
Afterward and afterwards are referred as same colloquially or informally in many English-speaking parts of the world.
Main Differences Between After and Afterward
- After is mostly used as a preposition to define the time, place and position of the noun but it can occasionally be used as a conjunction, adverb, noun and even as an adjective. Whereas, afterward is an adverb and doesn’t have multi functional ability.
- The word ‘afterward’ has an affix ie: suffix- ward attached to it, whereas the word ‘after’ does not have any affix attached to it.
- Both the words are technically the synonyms to each other but after is used as a more general term but, afterward is more accurate and states the time of the verb more precisely. Although many native English speakers use them interchangeably.
- The word afterward is actually a derivative of the original word after. So, afterward is the successor of the after when we consider their nomenclature and etymology.
- The word after is pronounced as ˈɑːf.tər whereas, afterward is pronounced as ˈɑːf.tə.wəd.
Both the words are colloquially similar and even possess similar meanings but ‘after’ has several grammatical applications depending upon the sentence that is to be formed. ‘Afterward’ on the other hand is an adverb with a similar meaning to the former. Common mistakes by native English speakers can be pointed out when these two terms are used interchangeably.
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