Difference Between Amylose and Amylopectin

Amylose is a polysaccharide composed of several D-glucose units. 1,4-glycosidic linkages bind them together. Because of the presence of amylose in the starch, when iodine is added to it, the colour changes to dark blue or black.

Amylopectin is a D-glucose polymer made up of multiple components. Amylopectin accounts for about 80% of the amylopectin in starch. -1,4-glycosidic and -1,6-glycosidic linkages bind Amylopectin molecules together.

Comparison Table between Amylose and Amylopectin

 Parameters of ComparisonAmylose Amylopectin
StructureIt's a D-glucose polymer with a straight chain.It's a D-glucose polymer with a branched-chain.
SolubilityIn water, it is just slightly soluble.In water, it is highly soluble.
Starch containsThe starch content is just 20% of the overall weight.The starch content is 80% of the overall weight.
Change in colourWhen mixed with iodine, the colour turns blue.When mixed with iodine, it turns a reddish-brown colour.
Gel formationWhen added to boiling water, gel formation is possible.There is no gel formation.

What is Amylose?

Amylose is a polysaccharide that is utilized as a functional biomaterial in a variety of industries. It's usually a linear component made up of 100 to 10,000 glucose monomers connected by 1,4 alpha bonds.

Amylose may be found in algae and a variety of other lower plants. It's a distributed polymer with around 6000 glucose deposits and branches on one of each of the 24 glucose rings.

The UPAC name for Amylose is (14)—D-Glucopyranan, the chemical formula is (C6H10O5)n, and the density is 1.25 g/mL. The Molecular Mass or Molecular Weight of a substance can change.

What is Amylopectin?

Amylopectin, a highly branched molecule with (1–4)-linked glucose linear chains and (1–6)-linked branch points, is generally the main component in starch granules

Free amylose, amylose complexed with lipids, and amylopectin branch points make up the crystalline domains of starch granules, whereas the amorphous region comprises free amylose, amylose complexed with lipids, and amylopectin branch points semicrystalline starch granules, a new arrangement of crystalline and amorphous regions was proposed.

The UPAC name for Amylose is (14)—D-Glucopyranan, the chemical formula is (C6H10O5)n, and the density is 1.25 g/mL. The Molecular Mass or Molecular Weight of a substance can change.

Amylopectin makes approximately 70–80% of starch by weight, however, this varies depending on the source (higher in medium-grain rice to 100% in glutinous rice, waxy potato starch).

Main Differences between Amylose and Amylopectin

  1. Amylose when mixed with iodine, the colour turns blue whereas Amylopectin when mixed with iodine, turns a reddish-brown colour.
  2. Amylose when added to boiling water, gel formation is possible but in Amylopectin there is no gel formation.

Conclusion

Amylose is utilized as a thickener, water binder, emulsion stabilizer, and gelling agent in both industrial and culinary applications. Because of its tightly packed structure, it is recognized as great prebiotic material.

Higher amylose starches are combined with food gum or instant starch as a binder, which aids in creating a crisp coating while preparing french fries, therefore reducing oil absorption.

Amyloplasts are specialized organelles found in plants that store starch. When the plant requires energy for cell activity, it hydrolyzes the starch and releases the glucose subunits.

References

  1. https://byjus.com/biology/difference-between-amylose-and-amylopectin/
  2. https://www.vedantu.com/biology/difference-between-amylose-and-amylopectin
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