Difference Between Amylose and Amylopectin (With Table)

Starch is a kind of carbohydrate known as a polysaccharide. Polysaccharides are formed when ten or more monosaccharides are linked together by glycosidic linkages. Starch is a colourless, odourless polymer found as a stored carbohydrate in plants. It’s a polymer made up of glucose monomers joined together to create polysaccharides. There are two types of polysaccharide molecules in starch: Amylose and Amylopectin.

Amylose vs Amylopectin

The difference between Amylose and Amylopectin is that Amylose is a straight-chain polymer of D-glucose units that constitutes 20% of starch and are tightly packed but Amylopectin is a branched-chain polymer D-glucose unit that constitutes 80% of starch and are has a reduced branching stiffness.

Amylose is a polysaccharide composed of several D-glucose units. 1,4-glycosidic linkages bind them together. Because of the presence of amylose in the starch, when iodine is added to it, the colour changes to dark blue or black. Amylose is water-soluble and may be digested by the enzymes – amylase and -amylase into glucose units.

Amylopectin is a D-glucose polymer made up of multiple components. Amylopectin accounts for about 80% of the amylopectin in starch. -1,4-glycosidic and -1,6-glycosidic linkages bind Amylopectin molecules together. Because of the presence of amylopectin, when iodine is added to starch, it becomes reddish-brown. It dissolves quickly in hot water. When it cools, it turns into a starch paste or gel.

Comparison Table between Amylose and Amylopectin

 Parameters of ComparisonAmylose Amylopectin
StructureIt’s a D-glucose polymer with a straight chain.It’s a D-glucose polymer with a branched-chain.
SolubilityIn water, it is just slightly soluble.In water, it is highly soluble.
Starch containsThe starch content is just 20% of the overall weight.The starch content is 80% of the overall weight.
Change in colourWhen mixed with iodine, the colour turns blue.When mixed with iodine, it turns a reddish-brown colour.
Gel formationWhen added to boiling water, gel formation is possible.There is no gel formation.

What is Amylose?

Amylose is a polysaccharide that is utilized as a functional biomaterial in a variety of industries. It’s usually a linear component made up of 100 to 10,000 glucose monomers connected by 1,4 alpha bonds. Meyer and his coworkers noticed that the characteristics of amylose were very different from those of native maize starch back in 1940.

Amylose may be found in algae and a variety of other lower plants. It’s a distributed polymer with around 6000 glucose deposits and branches on one of each of the 24 glucose rings.

The UPAC name for Amylose is (14)—D-Glucopyranan, the chemical formula is (C6H10O5)n, and the density is 1.25 g/mL. The Molecular Mass or Molecular Weight of a substance can change. The temperature at which water begins to boil is 760 mmHg at 627.7 55.0 °C, the kind of bond is glycosidic bonds, and the temperature at which water begins to boil is 760 mmHg at 627.7 55.0 °C. Because it is a polymer, the chemical formula is changeable; it has an awful odour and seems to be white powder. It has a surface tension of 74.4 5.0 dyne/cm and is insoluble in water.

What is Amylopectin?

Amylopectin, a highly branched molecule with (1–4)-linked glucose linear chains and (1–6)-linked branch points, is generally the main component in starch granules

Free amylose, amylose complexed with lipids, and amylopectin branch points make up the crystalline domains of starch granules, whereas the amorphous region comprises free amylose, amylose complexed with lipids, and amylopectin branch points semicrystalline starch granules, a new arrangement of crystalline and amorphous regions was proposed.

The UPAC name for Amylose is (14)—D-Glucopyranan, the chemical formula is (C6H10O5)n, and the density is 1.25 g/mL. The Molecular Mass or Molecular Weight of a substance can change. The temperature at which water begins to boil is 760 mmHg at 627.7 55.0 °C, the kind of bond is glycosidic bonds, and the temperature at which water begins to boil is 760 mmHg at 627.7 55.0 °C. Because it is a polymer, the chemical formula is changeable; it has an awful odour and seems to be white powder. It has a surface tension of 74.4 5.0 dyne/cm and is insoluble in water.

Amylopectin makes approximately 70–80% of starch by weight, however, this varies depending on the source (higher in medium-grain rice to 100% in glutinous rice, waxy potato starch). Amylopectin is a sugar that is made up of 2,000 to 200,000 glucose units and is a branching sugar. Its inner strands include 20–24 glucose subunits.

Main Differences between Amylose and Amylopectin

  1. Amylose is a Straight-chain polymer, whereas amylopectin is a branched-chain polymer
  2. Only -1,4-glycosidic bonds participate in the formation of amylose, while amylopectin contains both -1,4-glycosidic and -1,6-glycosidic bonds.
  3. Amylose is rigid than amylopectin
  4. Amylose is metabolized more slowly than amylopectin.
  5. Amylopectin, unlike amylose, is soluble in water.
  6. Amylose accounts for 20-30% of the structure of starch, while amylopectin accounts for 70-80% of the structure.
  7. Amylose when mixed with iodine, the colour turns blue whereas Amylopectin when mixed with iodine, turns a reddish-brown colour.
  8. Amylose when added to boiling water, gel formation is possible but in Amylopectin there is no gel formation.

Conclusion

Both include particles of starch. D-glucose units are present in both. Both of these compounds are polysaccharide molecules. Amylose’s primary purpose is to store energy and act as a food reserve. Amylose is utilized as a thickener, water binder, emulsion stabilizer, and gelling agent in both industrial and culinary applications. Because of its tightly packed structure, it is recognized as great prebiotic material. Amylose is easier to digest than amylopectin, and as a result, it takes up less space.

Amylose is used in permanent textile treatments, film production, plastics, and paper pulp fibre bonding. Higher amylose starches are combined with food gum or instant starch as a binder, which aids in creating a crisp coating while preparing french fries, therefore reducing oil absorption. It’s also utilized as starch in food wrappers and sausage casings, as well as in pasta and bread crusts for even microwave cooking.

Amyloplasts are specialized organelles found in plants that store starch. When the plant requires energy for cell activity, it hydrolyzes the starch and releases the glucose subunits. Amylase, an enzyme that aids in the breakdown of amylopectin, is used by humans and other animals who eat plant foods.

References

  1. https://byjus.com/biology/difference-between-amylose-and-amylopectin/
  2. https://www.vedantu.com/biology/difference-between-amylose-and-amylopectin
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