Amylose vs Amylopectin: Difference and Comparison

Starch is a kind of carbohydrate known as a polysaccharide. Polysaccharides are formed when ten or more monosaccharides are linked together by glycosidic linkages.

Key Takeaways

  1. Amylose is a linear, unbranched polysaccharide, while amylopectin is a branched polysaccharide.
  2. Amylose molecules form a helical structure, whereas amylopectin molecules have a tree-like structure.
  3. Amylose is less soluble in water and forms a firmer gel, while amylopectin is more soluble, creating a softer gel.

Amylose vs Amylopectin

The difference between Amylose and Amylopectin is that Amylose is a straight-chain polymer of D-glucose units that constitutes 20% of starch and are tightly packed, but Amylopectin is a branched-chain polymer D-glucose unit that constitutes 80% of starch and are has a reduced branching stiffness.

Amylose vs Amylopectin

Amylose is a polysaccharide composed of several D-glucose units. 1,4-glycosidic linkages bind them together. Because of the presence of amylose in the starch, when iodine is added to it, the colour changes to dark blue or black.

Amylopectin is a D-glucose polymer made up of multiple components. Amylopectin accounts for about 80% of the amylopectin in starch. -1,4-glycosidic and -1,6-glycosidic linkages bind Amylopectin molecules together.

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Comparison Table

 Parameters of ComparisonAmylose Amylopectin
StructureIt’s a D-glucose polymer with a straight chain.It’s a D-glucose polymer with a branched-chain.
SolubilityIn water, it is just slightly soluble.In water, it is highly soluble.
Starch containsThe starch content is just 20% of the overall weight.The starch content is 80% of the overall weight.
Change in colourWhen mixed with iodine, the colour turns blue.When mixed with iodine, it turns a reddish-brown colour.
Gel formationWhen added to boiling water, gel formation is possible.There is no gel formation.

What is Amylose?

Amylose is a polysaccharide that is utilized as a functional biomaterial in a variety of industries. It’s a linear component made up of 100 to 10,000 glucose monomers connected by 1,4 alpha bonds.

Amylose may be found in algae and a variety of other lower plants. It’s a distributed polymer with around 6000 glucose deposits and branches on one of each of the 24 glucose rings.

The UPAC name for Amylose is (14)—D-Glucopyranan, the chemical formula is (C6H10O5)n, and the density is 1.25 g/mL. The Molecular Mass or Molecular Weight of a substance can change.

amylose

What is Amylopectin?

Amylopectin, a highly branched molecule with (1–4)-linked glucose linear chains and (1–6)-linked branch points, is generally the main component in starch granules

Free amylose, amylose complexed with lipids, and amylopectin branch points make up the crystalline domains of starch granules, whereas the amorphous region comprises free amylose, amylose complexed with lipids, and amylopectin branch points semicrystalline starch granules, a new arrangement of crystalline and amorphous regions was proposed.

The UPAC name for Amylose is (14)—D-Glucopyranan, the chemical formula is (C6H10O5)n, and the density is 1.25 g/mL. The Molecular Mass or Molecular Weight of a substance can change.

Amylopectin makes approximately 70–80% of starch by weight, however, this varies depending on the source (higher in medium-grain rice to 100% in glutinous rice, waxy potato starch).

amylopectin

Main Differences between Amylose and Amylopectin

  1. Amylose, when mixed with iodine, the colour turns blue, whereas Amylopectin, when mixed with iodine, turns a reddish-brown colour.
  2. Amylose, when added to boiling water, gel formation is possible, but in Amylopectin, there is no gel formation.
References
  1. https://byjus.com/biology/difference-between-amylose-and-amylopectin/
  2. https://www.vedantu.com/biology/difference-between-amylose-and-amylopectin

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