Difference Between Archaebacteria and Eubacteria

Archaebacteria and eubacteria are two the different domains of the monera kingdom. Both of them are unicellular microorganisms and are commonly called prokaryotes.

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Archaebacteria vs Eubacteria

The difference between eubacteria and archaebacteria is their habitat and other characteristics that are specific to them. Eubacteria can live in areas like soil, water, and inside or on some other organisms. At the same time, archaebacteria live in places with extreme environmental conditions. Archaebacteria have various characteristics that differentiate them from eubacteria like their cell membrane chemistry, unique gene transcription, etc.

Archaebacteria vs Eubacteria

Eubacteria, also known as “true bacteria” are the unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms that are found in many different areas around the world. They lack a membrane-bound nucleus, and their cell wall is made up of peptidoglycans in a cross-linked chain pattern.

This structure helps them to maintain their shape and size. There are generally three types of eubacteria. They have various characteristics.  Archaebacteria or the “ancient bacteria” are also unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms.

They are generally found in ocean depths. They are capable of surviving in extreme environmental conditions. Archaebacteria are considered to be the modern form of some of the oldest bacteria found on earth. 

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonEubacteriaArchaebacteria
DefinitionEubacteria, also known as “true bacteria,” are the unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms.Archaebacteria are the unicellular prokaryotic organisms.
Size0.5 – 5 μm0.1 – 15 μm
HabitatThese are found everywhere like soil, water, inside other organisms, etc.These are commonly found in extreme environmental conditions.
TypesThree types: Gram-positive, Gram-negative and Miscellaneous.Three types: Crenarchoeta, Euryarcheota, and Koranchaeota
Cell wallMade up of peptidoglycans with muramic acid.Made up of pseudo peptidoglycans.

What is Eubacteria?

Eubacteria, also known as “true bacteria” are the unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms. They are found in different areas around the world. They live in soil, water, and even inside and on some other organisms.

All bacteria except the archaebacteria comes under eubacteria. Since they are prokaryotic, they lack a membrane-bound nucleus. Their cell wall is generally made up of peptidoglycans in a cross-linked chain pattern.

This type of structure helps them to maintain their shapes and sizes. Eubacteria have a wide range of characteristics like some bacteria have a flagellum, which is a structure made of proteins and is often used for movements.

Some bacteria have pili that are small projects found on their bodies which helps them to stick on a surface or to transfer DNA. Some bacteria are even capable of forming a biofilm, which is a structure that has high antimicrobial resistance.

At certain unfavorable environmental conditions, eubacteria are capable of surviving by producing spores. It keeps them dominant over extreme conditions like high and low temperature or acidic, basic conditions, etc.

Eubacteria can reproduce through binary fission and budding. Eubacteria are usually classified into three different types, i.e. Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and miscellaneous.

eubacteria

What is Archaebacteria?

Archaebacteria are the unicellular prokaryotic organisms. Earlier they were considered to be the same as all the other forms of bacteria. However, after some profound studies and research, scientists discovered that archaebacteria are way different than the usual modern forms of bacteria.

Archaebacteria have very different genetics and biochemical properties. They are considered to be the modern form of very ancient types of bacteria that were found on earth, and therefore they are named “archaebacteria” where the word “archae” means ancient.

These bacteria can survive in extreme environmental conditions like high or low temperature, salty habitat, acidic basic conditions etc. they are generally found in sulphate rich ocean depths.

There are a lot of characteristics of archaebacteria that makes them different from any other form of bacteria like the unique cell membrane chemistry or the unique gene transcription etc.

archaebacteria are often classified into three different forms i.e.

  1. Chrenarchoeta, these archaebacteria are capable of tolerating extreme heat.
  2. Euryarchaeota, are capable of surviving in harsh salty habitat.
  3. Koranchaeota is considered to be the oldest form of archaebacteria and still has a lot of information to be discovered about.
archaebacteria

Main Differences Between Eubacteria and Archaebacteria

  1. Archaebacteria have a simple organization of structure, whereas eubacteria have a complex system.
  2. The cell walls of archaebacteria are made up of pseudo peptidoglycans, whereas eubacteria’s cell walls are made up of peptidoglycans with muramic acid.
  3. Archaebacteria are found in extreme environmental conditions, whereas eubacteria are found everywhere.
  4. Archaebacteria have three types, i.e., Crenarchoeta, Euryarchaeota, and Koranchaeota, while eubacteria are also classified into three types, i.e., Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and Miscellaneous.
  5. The size of archaebacteria is around 0.1 – 15 μm in diameter. At the same time, eubacteria have a size of 0.5 – 5 μm in diameter.
  6. Archaebacteria have an asexual mode of reproduction like binary fission and budding; however, eubacteria, along with binary fission and budding, produce spores to stay dominant in extreme conditions.
  7. Archaebacteria are found in the depths of the ocean; in contrast, eubacteria are found everywhere, like in soils, water; some are even found inside and on other organisms.

References

  1. https://www.pnas.org/content/86/23/9355.short
  2. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00270794
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