Difference Between Beam and Girder

The ACI (American Concrete Institute) Code prescribes all building elements for concrete blocks as well as basic user acceptance for such components. The ACI Code is a foremost expert for checking, project planning, and advising for parties engaged in building projects and concrete layouts. Beam, as well as a girder, are the two most commonly used codes in engineering structures, but there are significant differences among them.

Beam vs Girder

The main difference between beam and girder is that beams are an essential component of rigid structural buildings and houses that are designed to support the dispersed load of any construction. Are the most often built structural components to withstand beam stress. Whereas a girder is a sort of beam which sustains other minor beams, functioning as the building’s major horizontal stabilizers. The girder, with exception of beams, is intended to support considerable circumferential loads such as pillars or beam responses.

Beam vs Girder

A beam is a major component of a mechanical frame system that is specifically intended to support dispersed loads such as two walls or roof structures as well as rooftop additional room-tops. Beams are among the most typically developed structural components in engineering, and their major mechanism of displacement is bending.

Girder is a horizontal primary sustaining beam in infrastructure designing and it can be considered as the support for a ‘beam’ that supports a vertical concentrated and compressive load. Girders, as opposed to beams, are designed to support enormous tension forces such as pillars or beam reactions, and their load carrying capacity is significantly greater than that of beams.

Comparison Table Between Beam and Girder

Parameters of ComparisonBeamGirder
MeaningA beam is a major component of a structural frame system that is specifically intended to support dispersed loads such as parallel walls or roof systems.Girder is a horizontal primary sustaining beam in infrastructure designing and it can be considered as the support for a ‘beam’ that supports a vertical concentrated and compressive load.
UtilityFor basic structural frameworks and for skeletal building for most construction projects.Used as a support element for beams and for rooftop constructions as well.
ProjectsBeams are used for constructing flats, offices, cubicles and houses.Used for flyovers, overpassess, towers and pillars.
SizeBeams are tall and sleek in structure. Girders are comparatively shorter and sturdier than beams. These are essential for dynamic load. 
PriceBeams range from cheap metal to steel beams which are costlier.Girders are usually less expensive than beams as they are usually made up of cement or stones.

What is a Beam?

A beam is a major component of a structural frame system that is specifically intended to support dispersed loads such as parallel walls or roof systems. Beams are one of the most essential yet comprehensively built elements in civil and mechanical engineering, and their major mechanism of deflection is bending. Its primary application is to withstand bending moments, vertical loads, and shear stresses.

Thus, beams are characterized by their flexural stiffness, which is determined by the basic structural criteria. In layman’s terms, a beam is any lateral part of the structure that experiences lateral load and therefore can sustain it.

A beam is a perpendicular part that spans an aperture and bears a weight, which could be a stone masonry wall just above the entrance, with which instance the beam is commonly referred to as a corbel. In a structure, the weight might be flooring or a ceiling, in which instance the beam is referred to as a flooring joist or a roof joist. Strands are the fully laden transverse beams of a truss bridge; floor joists are the stronger, transverse sections.

What is Girder?

Girders are large shafts that support the extremities of other beams which run orthogonal to each other. Steel girders can be separate rolling sections or aggregated in the configuration of an ‘I’ by fastening or riveting plates with angles together to provide for greater stiffness and longer spans. Cement girders are widely used.

Apparently, girders and beams share a similar structure but girders can be considered as the primary horizontal line of a structure which acts as promising support for thinner beams. Girders, as opposed to beams, are meant to carry large concentrated loads including such pillars or beam responses, and their load-bearing capability is substantially more than that of beams. It can be composed of several materials, including concrete, stainless steel, or a mix of the two. It sustains vertical weights and can be made of a single piece or many pieces joined together.

Girders target small beams and serve as the primary support frame of construction, supporting significant compressive loads such as pilasters or beam responses. A girder is the huge infrastructure support divided into smaller beams. Yet, there are no precise requirements in the Code that differentiate a beam from a girder; nevertheless, the mechanical tension resistibility of a girder is greater than that of a beam.

Main Differences Between Beams and Girders

  1. Beams are longer and less thick in diameters whereas girders are shorter and thicker than beams.
  2. Beams are horizontal structural supports whereas girders are horizontal secondary structures that are used for aiding beams.
  3. Beams are used for structural frameworks whereas girders are used for adjusting the tension and compression of beams and bricks over it.
  4. Beams cannot be considered as girders but girders can be used both as beams and girders themselves.
  5. Beams are used for constructing houses and flats whereas girders are used for towers and flyovers.

Conclusion

Beams are lateral components that support local joists yet function as the primary support of construction with variable load-carrying capability. A girder is a longitudinal primary supporting beam in building construction that supports a vertical compressive force.

As a result, girders are mostly employed to construct bridges as well as overpasses, whereas beams are appropriate for residential constructions. In a nutshell, all girders constitute beams, although not all beams are girders.

References

  1. https://www.britannica.com/technology/girder
  2. https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Types_of_beam
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