Difference Between Catholic and Orthodox (With Table)

Churches are divided into two different types; the Catholic church and the orthodox church. Their faith is based on the god-spell of Jesus- the Holy Bible. They believe in the Trinity. Their motto is to convert people from other religions; the Christian denomination.

Catholic vs Orthodox

The difference between the Catholic church and the Orthodox church is that the former believe that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the father to the son; while the latter believes that it proceeds only from the father.

The Catholic church is one of the oldest institutes; still functioning. It gives the Pope (Bishop of Rome) the supreme authority – Vicar of Christ. Here the doctrines are more prone to changes over the years. The Pope of the Catholic church is endowed with Petrine ministries.

On the contrary, the Orthodox church’s Pope is not considered as infallible. Hence is not given the supreme authority. Here children are involved early in the congregation. This church has no central governmental or doctrinal authority.

Comparison Table Between Catholic and Orthodox

Parameters Of ComparisonCatholic ChurchOrthodox Church
OriginFirst-century; Holy land, the Roman empireFirst-century; Judea,  Roman empire
FounderJesus according to Sacred traditionsJesus Christ according to the Holy traditions
TheologyCatholic theologyEastern orthodox theology
RegionWorldwideSoutheast  Europe, Eastern Europe, and communities in the Mediterranean and the Middle East, etc.
Language Here the languages spoken are Ecclesiastical  Latin and native languages.While the languages spoken here are Koine Greek,  Church Slavonic,  vernacular.

What is Catholic?

The Roman Catholic Church is generally known as the Catholic church; is the enormous Christian church. Their central authority is based in the Holy See located in the Vatican city. The Roman Church is used to describe the Pope diocese of Rome. The development and history of Western civilization are greatly influenced by this church.

The Bishop of Rome is regarded as chief Pastor. Catholics believe that God talks through the Pope. They also believe that we all carry the consequences and guilt of Adam’s sin. And also the Catholic priests are not allowed to marry.

The main goal of Catholics in terms of salvation is to escape hell and achieve theosis as well. The Catholic Church consists of seven sacraments:

  1. Baptism
  2. Eucharist
  3. Confirmation
  4. Holy orders
  5. Penance
  6. Anointing of the sick
  7. Holy matrimony

Catholics believe that there is one eternal God- the Holy Trinity. Catholic men are restrained for Holy orders, while the Catholic women and the nuns engage themselves in developing and running health and education services internationally. The event of confessing to their sins is strictly followed by the Catholics.

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What is Orthodox?

The orthodox church is also known as the Eastern Orthodox church. It is the second-largest Christian church. It is also one of the oldest religious institutes in the world. It has influenced the culture of eastern and south-eastern Europe and history too. These churches are governed by Bishops in local synod and are operated as the communion of the autocephalous. 

The Pope is not considered infallible by the orthodox church. Orthodox priests are allowed to marry, contrary to the Catholic priests. The honor of primacy is given to the patriarch of Constantinople. Yet being considered and given highest status amongst all; he does not have authority over churches.

The Eastern Orthodox Church considers Jesus Christ as the head while the Church is considered to be a body. It is believed by the Orthodox Christians that the grace of God and authority are foreowned by the Bishops and clergy. It is handed down by laying on hand; a practice initiated by the apostles.

They differentiate between God’s eternal essence and his indigenous energies as a relationship of God and his creations. This is the way in which he (the God) reaches humanity. The Julian calendar is followed by the autocephalous churches and the rest follow the revised Julian calendar. They do not believe in purgatory. There is no compulsion for confession of their sins.

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Main Differences Between Catholic and Orthodox

  1. The liturgy of catholic churches includes Western rites and Eastern rites,  while that of the Orthodox Church includes Byzantine rites.
  2. Both churches have seven sacraments; the catholic church’s sacrament includes penance while that of orthodox includes repentance.
  3. The services of Catholic churches are/were conducted in the Latin language. On the contrary, services for Orthodox churches are/were conducted in Greek or local languages.
  4. The Orthodox church or the eastern catholic church rejected the use of any icons; instead, statues of saints were created while the Roman catholic permitted the same.
  5. The Catholic church does not permit divorce while the other does.

Conclusion

Despite the main motto of both the Churches being the same i.e. preaching Christianity and Christian denomination. Both the churches have faith in the Trinity; a rift was created due to differences in some beliefs. Excluding their origin, there are various differences between these two.

The Catholic church indoctrinates that the successors of Christ’s apostles are the bishops and the successor to Saint Peter is none other than the Pope. They also have a headquarters in Vatican City which has the central authority. There are various social and cultural issues amongst the Catholic Church such as Catholic social teaching, social services, sexual mortality, and sexual abuse cases.

On the contrary,  the religious authority for Eastern Orthodox Church is not a  patriarch, it is a fellowship of self-headed churches. Contrary to the Catholic Church, the Orthodox Church does not have headquarters nor a central authority. The patriarch of Constantinople was given the honor of primacy by the Orthodox Church that means he is given the highest status amongst all. This title has no real authority over churches except the Constantinopolitan. They believe that authorities are handed over to the orthodox bishops.

References

  1. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ptVKAwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP6&dq=catholic+church+teachings&ots=b4-DjenFJp&sig=Vvq0a5SMdHRFtuLN36756mrVFd0
  2. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=HAaNyj20KDYC&oi=fnd&pg=PA1&dq=orthodox+church+teachings&ots=cMvPpvL1Pl&sig=c5xpv3eVoSrINAzzFzwsxb8NcJE

Last update on 2021-11-23 / Amazon Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API

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