Difference Between Catholic Bible and Jewish Bible (With Table)

Religion is omnipresent. Religion is one of the binding factors in this world. The people are bound by the values and teachings of various religious beliefs present. Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, etc., are some of the overarching religions. The teachings of these religions are described in their respective sacred books.

Catholic Bible vs Jewish Bible

The difference between Catholic Bible and Jewish Bible is that the number of books, arrangement of the books, and acceptance of certain books is different. Religious scriptures tend to be an essential part of the daily lives of the people. Christianity and Judaism are some of the most widespread religions. The former is divided into two main types- Catholic and Protestant. While the Catholics follow the Catholic Bible, the Protestants follow their respective Bible. On the other hand, Jewish people observe the Hebrew Bible.

Catholic Bible is the religious book of the Christians, specifically the Roman Catholics. It consists of 73 books, 46 books of the Old Testament and 27 books of the New Testament. Besides that, it includes parts of the Septuagint (Greek) collection of books but not the Hebrew Masoretic collection. According to Canon Law, the publication of the Catholic Bible requires the permission of the Conference of Bishops.

Jewish Bible/ Hebrew Bible is also known as the Tanakh. It is a collection of canonical texts written in Hebrew and Aramaic and consists of 24 books. The Tanakh is believed to have developed and authorized between the 2nd Centuries BCE and 3rd Centuries BCE. It has 3 main parts-Torah, the Nevi’im and the Ketuvim.

Comparison Table Between Catholic Bible and Jewish Bible

Parameters of ComparisonCatholic Bible Jewish Bible
Number of books73 books24 books
CodificationDuring the Hasmonean dynasty or by the 2nd century CE.Only after the Reformation Movement in the 16th Century
Arrangement of the booksFormer Prophets comes before the Writings or Wisdom followed by Latter Prophets.Former and Latter are before Writings or Ketuvim.
Titles of some booksKingdoms 1 &2 are named 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel.Kingdoms 1 &2 are named Samuel 1&2.
Acceptance of certain sacred booksNew Testament is accepted. New Testament is not accepted.
LanguageHebrew and AramaicSeptuagint Greek

What is Catholic Bible?

The Catholic Bible is the religious book of the Roman Catholics or simply the Catholics. The authorization of the Catholic comes from the Church and a conference of Bishops. The translations of the Bible are also permitted by the Church according to the Canon Law of 1983.

The Catholic Bible is a 73-book collection. It includes deuterocanonical books. These books are books of the Old Testament, parts of the Septuagint collection, and the New Testament. The Catholic Church during the Lutheran/Protestant Reformation in the 16th century decided to retain all books.

The period for development and codification of the Catholic Bible is vast. The Old Testament is said to be dated around the 10th- 2nd century BCE. While the New Testament is dated around 50-110 CE. These dates are not specific. The Old Testament is written in Hebrew, while New Testament is written in Greek. However, there are portions written in Aramaic. The codification of the Catholic Bible did not take place until the Council of Trent in the 16th century.

The Catholic Bible teaches its worshippers that God revealed himself gradually through the Old Testament, and complete revelation occurred when the Son of God, Jesus Christ, came to Earth. The Catholic Bible contains teachings of Jesus Christ and such as the Sermon on the Mount and the Ten Commandments.

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What is Jewish Bible?

The scripture of the Jewish people or Hebrew Bible is called Tanakh. Tanakh is comprised of parts of the Catholic Bible- Old Testament etc. The Hebrew Bible or Tanakh consists of 24 books. It is mainly divided into 3 parts- Torah or Teaching, which is also is also known as the Pentateuch or the Five Books of Moses; the Nevi’im or Prophets; the Ketuvim or Writings. Tanakh is thus named after these 3 books taking the first letter of each part.

Torah or Teaching is the guidelines with rules and regulations illustrated in Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy. It is the first 5 books of the Tanakh and includes both the oral and written part of the Jewish Bible. The revelations made to Moses constitute the oral traditions as well as the written part. Readings from the Torah form a part of the Jewish services.

Nevi’im or Prophets is the second book. It is divided into parts- former Prophets and latter Prophets and Twelve Minor Prophets, with the first two as 2 main divisions. It is concerned with the genealogy of God’s supporters.

Ketuvim is the last part of the Tanakh. There are several categories of books included in Ketuvim. It is related to Writings of the Jewish Bible. The Ketuvim has 4 parts poetic books, Five Scrolls or the Megillot, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah, and Chronicles. The Tanakh seems to have been compiled by the 2nd / 1st Century BCE. The codification of the Tanakh is argued to have taken place in the Hasmonean dynasty or by the 2nd century CE.

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Main Differences Between Catholic Bible and Jewish Bible

  1. The number of the Catholic Bible is more than Jewish Bible. The Catholic Bible includes 73 books, whereas the Jewish Bible includes 24 books. Several books are not accepted as the Jewish Scriptures.
  2. The codification of the books took place at different periods. The Catholic Bible was codified only after the Reformation Movement in the 16th century. Before that, the Bible was approved even without codification.
  3. The book on Former Prophets comes before the Writings or Wisdom Books, followed by Latter Prophets in Catholic Bible. Whereas in the Jewish Bible, the Prophets- Former and Latter are before Writings or Ketuvim.
  4. The titles of the books are different. In the Jewish Bible, Kingdoms 1 &2 are named Samuel 1&2, whereas in Kingdoms 3 & 4 are called Kings 1 & 2. In the Catholic Bible Kingdoms, 1 &2 are named 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel, whereas Kingdom 3 &4 are designated as 1 King and 2 Kings.
  5. The New Testament is not accepted as part of their Bible as the Jewish people do not believe Jesus Christ as the Messiah or Son of God. The Catholic Bible agrees with the New Testament as part of the Bible.
  6. The Jewish Bible is written in Hebrew Masoretic Text and some parts in Aramaic. The Catholic Bible, the Old Testament, is written in Greek Septuagint.


The Jewish Bible and the Catholic Bible both have the same texts. The Catholic Bible is a Greek Septuagint collection which is the Greek translation of the Jewish Bible. Jewish Bible disregarded the deuterocanonical Septuagint text in the 7th – 10th centuries CE. The differences between the two are not so distinct in their books as the Old Testament and the Jewish Bible are the same.

The difference in their Bible is their arrangement and reading and understanding of the Bible. For example, the Ruth is placed between Judges and 1Samuel in Catholic Bible. Whereas in the Jewish Bible, it is placed in the Ruth in the Writings. The differences in the Bible define the belief pattern of the religions. Although there are differences, there are several similarities in both the Bibles, which helps understand the tex


  1. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=DX7O38l4bfsC&oi=fnd&pg=PR5&dq=what+is+catholic+bible&ots=MI8MgDrK_V&sig=WxmMtX5pQfpH6do5l8qEcTQiOko
  2. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=qgNaaCGVx9wC&oi=fnd&pg=PT11&dq=what+is+jewish+bible&ots=J372xBismQ&sig=4X4lftp1Cgcqeo3-4hlMzqPQm58

Last update on 2021-04-11 / Amazon Affiliate links / Images from Amazon Product Advertising API