Cerebellum vs Cerebrum: Difference and Comparison

Inside the brain, several divisions work together every second to deliver the experience we are enjoying.


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The Cerebrum and Cerebellum are one such magnificent parts. Both have similar names but distinct differences, and working together produces miracles.

Key Takeaways

  1. The cerebellum is responsible for motor coordination, balance, and muscle tone, while the cerebrum is involved in higher cognitive functions, including thought and action.
  2. The cerebellum is located at the base of the brain, while the cerebrum is the largest part of the brain, occupying the upper region.
  3. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres, each with four lobes, while the cerebellum has two hemispheres and three lobes.

Cerebellum vs Cerebrum

The cerebellum, located at the base of the brain, is responsible for coordinating movement, balance, and fine motor control. The cerebrum is the most significant part of the brain and is responsible for conscious thought, perception, language, and voluntary muscle control.

Cerebellum vs Cerebrum


Comparison Table

Parameter of ComparisonCerebrumCerebellum
SizeMost significant of the central nervous systemSmaller than cerebrum
FunctionsSensory, motor, and higher mental functionsMotor coordination, posture maintenance, and balance
PartsTwo cerebral hemispheres with 4 lobes on each hemisphere.Peduncles connect two cerebellar hemispheres to the brain stem.
Forming which component of BrainForebrainHindbrain
Fibers connecting two side hemispheresCorpus callosumVermis
Association with memoryAssociated with memoryNot always associated with memory.
Role in motor activitiesPlanning and initiation of motor movementsCoordination of motor activities
Language skillsIt decides what to talk about and initiates the language and is also responsible for the comprehension of the language.Coordinates the speech articulation
VisionRecords and comprehends the visual stimulusCoordination of eye movements in response to a sensory stimulus.


What is Cerebellum?

Cerebrum, also known as Telencephalon, is the most significant part of the human brain, comprising almost 2/3 of the cranial vault of the skull.

It is divided into two hemispheres, viz right and left hemispheres. Each of these hemispheres controls the body on the opposite side.

The aforesaid hemispherical division of the cerebrum is made up with the help of the median longitudinal fissure.

Each hemisphere is composed of 4 lobes, namely, Frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital.

Each of these lobes is primarily associated with an individual group of functions.

And also, each side of the hemisphere is related to a particular set of abilities.

For instance, the person with more right-brain activities will be more efficient in creativity, spatial skills, music, and other artistic skills.

The person with left-brain dominance will be more efficient with logical reasoning, arithmetic operations, and writing.

The cerebrum is divided based on the nature of the cells it is made of into grey matter and white matter.

The grey matter represents the cell bodies of various neurons, while the white matter represents the extensions of the cell bodies, which we call axons.

Any activity executed by the cerebrum starts from the grey matter and is transmitted to the effector’s sites by the white matter.

The cerebral hemisphere, on external appearance, reveals elevations and depressions on the surfaces, which are called gyri and sulci, respectively.

There are 3 primary sulci and 3 main gyri one should know about,

Central, lateral and lunate sulci form the boundaries between the lobes of the cerebral hemispheres.

Superior temporal, precentral, and postcentral gyri separate the cortex based on functional significance.

The anterior, middle and posterior cerebral arteries provide nutrition to these regions.

Occlusion in these arteries leads to the most commonly seen condition, which we all know as Stroke or cerebrovascular accident.

The effect of the occlusion or damage varies with different arteries being affected.


What is Cerebrum?

The cerebellum is the second most significant part of the brain that is placed on the posterior cranial fossa inside the cranial vault.

Though the cerebrum’s initiation of all the motor movements requires the cerebellum’s primary sensory data, the cerebellum cannot independently initiate a motor movement.

The main functions of the cerebellum are the coordination of motor movements and maintaining posture, gait, and balance.

The dura mater ( layer of the meninges) that covers the cerebellum in its locations is called the tentorium cerebelli.

This cerebellum is divided into two-sided hemispheres and connected vermis, a medial eminence.

The cerebellum is connected with the brain stem with the help of superior, middle, and inferior cerebellar peduncles, through which the input and outputs to and from the cerebellum pass.

Cerebellum has two parts when classified based on the cells’ grey matter and white matter.

The grey matter containing the cell bodies is further divided into 3 layers, outer molecular, middle-Purkinje, and internal granular layer.

The cells that make up the cerebellum are Stellate, Basket, Golgi, Purkinje, Granular, and unipolar Brush cells.

These different parts play different roles in different movements; for instance, the area of the vermis cortex is essential in coordinating the movements of the trunk of the human body, while the intermediate zone of the cerebellar hemisphere deals with the movements in the distal extremities.

The lateral area of the cerebellar hemispheres mediates the conscious assessment and coordination of movements all over the body.

The blood is supplied to the cerebellum through 3 main arteries, namely, superior, anterior, and posterior cerebellar arteries.


Main Differences Between Cerebellum and Cerebrum

  1. The cerebrum is the most significant part of the brain. The cerebellum is the second most prominent part of the brain.
  2. The cerebrum initiates motor movements. The cerebellum coordinates motor movements.
  3. The corpus callosum connects the cerebral hemispheres. Cerebellar hemispheres are connected by vermis.
  4. The cerebrum is associated with higher mental functions in addition to motor and sensory functions. The cerebellum coordinates motor movements and maintains posture, gait, and balance.
  5. Cerebrum, when endured damage, will lead to alteration in consciousness and personality of an individual in addition to motor defects. Cerebellum, when suffering damage, will lead to motor defects only.
  6. Anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries supply the cerebrum. The cerebellum is supplied by the Superior, Anterior and Posterior cerebellar arteries.
Difference Between Cerebellum and Cerebrum
  1. https://n.neurology.org/content/63/6/989.short
  2. https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/80/2/182.short
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