Classic vs Mosaic Turner Syndrome: Difference and Comparison

Tuner Syndrome refers to the absence of a sex chromosome, specifically in the female body. A female body generally consists of about two sex chromosomes (XX). And here, in Tuner Syndrome, it tells us about a missing sex chromosome.

The Tuner Syndrome has been subdivided mainly into two types they are Classic Tuner Syndrome and Mosaic Turner Syndrome.

Key Takeaways

  1. Classic Turner Syndrome is a genetic condition where a female is born with a missing or partially missing X chromosome. At the same time, Mosaic Turner Syndrome involves a combination of cells with a missing X chromosome and normal cells.
  2. Classic Turner Syndrome affects the entire body, whereas Mosaic Turner Syndrome may have milder symptoms due to the presence of some normal cells.
  3. Both types of Turner Syndrome can result in short stature, infertility, and other health issues, but the severity of symptoms varies between individuals and the two types.

Classic Turner Syndrome vs Mosaic Turner Syndrome

Classic Turner syndrome is characterized by short stature, delayed puberty, infertility, heart and kidney problems, and other physical abnormalities such as a webbed neck. Mosaic Turner syndrome may have similar features but can vary in severity depending on the percentage of affected cells.

Classic Turner Syndrome vs Mosaic Turner Syndrome

The disorder where a female body lacks having 46 (XX) chromosomes in each cell of the body is referred to as Classic Turner Syndrome.

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Hence, we can state that each cell of the female body is affected, and further, it causes more severe abnormalities.

On the other hand, in the situation of having Mosaic Turner Syndrome, a female body goes through the abnormality of not having one of the sex chromosomes in some of the selective cells of the body, and therefore it might lead to some noticeable abnormalities.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonClassic Turner SyndromeMosaic Turner Syndrome
GenotypeIn general, Classic Turner Syndrome only has a particular genotype and that is 45, X.People with Mosaic Turner Syndrome have various genotypes like 45, X/46, XX, or 45, X/46, XY, or 45, X/47, X X X.
DiagnosisClassic Turner Syndrome can be identified by various methods such as To PCR, ultrasound, etc. Nothing can identify Mosaic Turner Syndrome and hence it can only be identified after the child’s growth according to the age.
ComplicationsClassic Turner Syndrome creates some other related complications and it includes dissecting aortic aneurysm, kidney diseases, heart diseases, etc. Mosaic Turner Syndrome majorly increases the chance of having a gonadal tumor which is also known as gonadoblastomas.
SeriousnessClassic Turner Syndrome is more serious than Mosaic Turner Syndrome. Comparatively, Mosaic Turner Syndrome is not that serious or complicated.
Infected CellsIn Classic Turner Syndrome all the cells of the body are infected.Selective cells are diagnosed with Mosaic Turner Syndrome.

What is Classic Turner Syndrome?

Classic Turner Syndrome is a type of Turner Syndrome. Here in this Syndrome, we can notice that there is an absence of sex chromosomes in each cell of the female body. This syndrome can be mainly identified for this reason.

There are more severe complications in this Classic Turner Syndrome, as each body cell lacks the sex chromosome.

Also, we can conclude that Classic Turner Syndrome specifically takes place in about 45% of patients diagnosed with Turner Syndrome.

The Classic Turner Syndrome imbalance the normal growth of the person by lacking them in various aspects such as in their height, weight, face shape, etc. And the genotype for this Syndrome is 45, X in every cell.

Therefore, there is no sign of variable genotype for Classic Turner Syndrome.

The proper diagnosis of Classic Turner Syndrome can be accomplished by various medical techniques such as RT-PCR, Ultrasound, and other molecular methods.

Therefore, we can say that it can be detected even before the birth of the child. And it takes place in the female body. Classic Turner Syndrome might create some other complications such as kidney diseases, heart diseases, etc.

What is Mosaic Turner Syndrome?

Mosaic Turner Syndrome is the second variant of Turner Syndrome. In this disorder, we can notice that some of the cells in the female body do not have the Sex chromosome.

This syndrome only harms some of the selective cells. Hence the body parts where the cells are infected only those body parts can be seen as unusual or abnormal.

And as we know that only a few cells are infected there, the Mosaic Turner Syndrome is less complicated than the other variant.

The genotype for Mosaic Turner Syndrome, there are multiple variants and hence depends from person to person. Some variables include 45, X/46, XX, or 45, X/46, XY, or X/47, X X X.

And about 55% of patients with Turner Syndrome are detected with Mosaic Turner Syndrome. The only disadvantage of this syndrome is that any kind of medical method can not identify it.

The only diagnosis for this includes the child’s development. As the child grows, we can notice some abnormalities such as short height, unusual face type, imbalance in the normal weight, etc.

The major complication that Mosaic Turner Syndrome can establish is a high chance of a gonadal tumor in the child’s respective reproductive system, known as gonadoblastomas.

Hence, immediate removal of such tumors is preferred.

Main Differences Between Classic Turner Syndrome and Mosaic Turner Syndrome

  1. There are no variables in the genotype for Classic Tuner Syndrome, hence it is detected only with 45, X. On the other hand, we can count multiple genotypes for Mosaic Turner Syndrome, and it includes 45, X/46, XX, or 45, X/46, XY, or X/47, X X X.
  2. Classic Turner Syndrome can be diagnosed with the help of multiple medical methods, but on the other hand, it is not possible for Mosaic Turner Syndrome.
  3. Along with Classic Turner Syndrome, we can notice other future complications such as aortic aneurysms, kidney diseases, heart diseases, etc. And on the other hand, some major complications, such as gonadoblastomas, a gonadal tumor, come along with Mosaic Turner Syndrome.
  4. Classic Turner Syndrome is more crucial and dangerous for a human’s life, and on the other hand, it can be said that Mosaic Turner Syndrome is comparatively less serious.
  5. Generally, every cell present in the female is infected by Classic Turner Syndrome, while on the other hand, Mosaic Turner Syndrome does not infect all cells.
References
  1. https://jmedicalcasereports.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1752-1947-8-109
  2. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/irish-journal-of-psychological-medicine/article/relationship-between-karyotype-and-cognitive-functioning-in-turner-syndrome/F0B5430F9680A349ED78E9ACD929F7A7

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