Difference Between Cofactor and Coenzyme (With Table)

Various kinds of enzymes and factors function in our body. Living Beings health depended on their functions. There are a few things that vary between Cofactor and Coenzyme.

A cofactor is a kind of chemical component with non-protein that do not tie up with an enzyme, whereas a Coenzyme is a component that acts as a catalyst on an Enzyme. The cofactors and coenzymes help to function biochemically. Some of the facts and differences about Cofactor and Coenzyme had listed below.  

Cofactor vs Coenzyme  

The difference between Cofactor and Coenzyme is that Cofactor is a chemical component that acts as a catalyst on enzymes, whereas Coenzyme is a kind of catalyst that helps in binding with the enzymes for functioning. Both Cofactor and Coenzymes are non-protein chemicals that help in functioning a body in their ways.  

A cofactor is a chemical component catalyst that plays a catalyst role on enzymes. The cofactors do not hold together with the enzymes. Cofactors are known as helper molecules where the biochemical transformations work on these. The study of these characterized functions in an area had called Enzyme Kinetics.  

In Contrast, Coenzyme is a chemical component that holds together with the Enzymes in a function. These are non-protein compounds that support the enzymes. These Coenzymes help to occur chemical reactions which had carried out by an enzyme. Although these are non-protein compounds, these can involve in chemical reactions. The Coenzymes will tie-up with the shape and structure of the enzymes.  

Comparison Table Between Cofactor and Coenzyme  

Parameters of Comparison Cofactor Coenzyme  
Meaning The cofactor is a chemical component that acts as a catalyst on an enzyme. Coenzyme is a chemical compound that had used to support the enzymes. 
Function Its function is to help the active enzymes. It supports the enzymes in a chemical reaction. 
Difference Cofactors are not held together with the enzymes. These had tied up with the enzymes according to their structure.  
Occurrence   Cofactors are of two types:  Organic and inorganic molecules. The organic molecules of the cofactors are known as Coenzymes. 
Categories These had categorized as Metal Ions, Coenzymes and Prosthetics Groups. The kinds in Coenzymes are Prosthetics Groups and Cosubstrates.  

What is Cofactor?  

The cofactor is a kind of chemical component with non-protein that do not tie up with the enzyme. These cofactors are present in enzymes but do not bind with them. Its function is to help the active enzymes. The Cofactor acts as a catalyst for functioning the active enzymes. These are metallic ions known as helper molecules in biochemical conversions. The principal function of the Cofactor is to help the function of the enzyme. The study of these characterized functions in an area had called Enzyme Kinetics. The organic molecules of the cofactors are known as coenzymes. Cofactors are sunder into two kinds, they are  

  • Organic molecules  
  • Inorganic ions  

These organic molecules are the coenzymes that tie up with the enzymes. Examples of inorganic ions are copper, zinc and some others. However, coenzymes have their functions. The Cofactors had classified into three categories they are Metal Ions, Coenzymes and Prosthetics Groups. The enzymes cannot perform the functions alone where the help of a cofactor had used for discharge. The division of the cofactors into small metallic organic ions are coenzymes that help in a chemical reaction. Although these are non-protein compounds, the functioning of cofactors is helpful in the body. Cofactors are not held together with the enzymes. The inorganic factors include the ions like magnesium, clusters of iron-sulfur, copper, manganese, whereas the organic cofactors include flavin, heme, Prosthetics and coenzymes.   

What is Coenzyme?  

Coenzyme is a component that acts as a catalyst on Enzymes. The Coenzymes are held together with the enzymes according to their shapes and structure. These are the organic molecules of cofactors and assembled from the vitamins.

The primary function of the Coenzymes is to support and help the enzymes in chemical reactions. By binding on the active enzymes, these coenzymes had involved in the chemical reactions. Although these are non-protein compounds, these can require in chemical reactions. The kinds in Coenzymes are  

  • Prosthetic groups  
  • Co-Substrates  

The Coenzymes will assist in the substrate recruitment of the enzyme on active sites. Some of the examples of the Coenzymes are  

  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide  
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate  
  • Flavin adenine dinucleotide  

The above examples of the Coenzymes help to perform oxidation which is to transfer the hydrogen. The coenzymes do not perform any chemical reaction themselves because these are tiny molecules. By binding with the protein enzymes, they can use to perform the chemical reaction between molecules.   

Main Differences Between Cofactor and Coenzyme  

  1. A cofactor is the chemical composition of the enzymes, whereas coenzymes had produced from vitamins that act on the enzymes.  
  2. Cofactor divides into organic and inorganic ions where the organic molecules of the Cofactor are Coenzymes.  
  3. A cofactor had used to help the active enzymes, whereas Coenzyme had used to perform the chemical reaction with the help of an enzyme.   
  4. Cofactor does not hold together on the enzymes, where Coenzyme ties up with the shape and structure of the enzymes.  
  5. Cofactors had categorized into three groups, whereas the Coenzymes had classified into two groups.  

Conclusion  

A cofactor is a chemical component catalyst that plays a catalyst role on enzymes. The cofactors do not hold together with the enzymes. Cofactors are known as helper molecules, where the biochemical transformations work on these. The study of these characterized functions in an area had called Enzyme Kinetics.  

Coenzyme is a chemical component that holds together with the Enzymes in a function. These are non-protein compounds that support the enzymes. The Coenzymes help occur chemical reactions, which had carried out by an enzyme. The Coenzymes will tie-up with the shape and structure of the enzymes. 

References

  1. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.1052.1234&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  2. https://portlandpress.com/biochemsoctrans/article/42/4/1075/68725

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