Both communism and Nazism are radical philosophies that oppose political or social reform. When they came into the picture in 19th century Europe, they were contemplated to be spontaneous and innate responses to the political situation back then.
Even though both the worldviews are backed by the same rationale, they differ in many ways. However, the fact that they roused revolutions and elicited wars cannot be denied.
Communism vs Nazism
The difference between communism and Nazism is that communism is a socio-economic ideology that rejects the concept of social classes and aims at uniting society by awarding everyone with equal rights and opportunities. Meanwhile, Nazism is a totalitarian ideology that supports social classification and rejects the ideas of liberal democracy.
Communism in theory is a system that allows a property to be owned by an entire community and not just the upper strata. In this community, every person contributes and gets rewarded. However, they receive benefits based on their abilities and needs. The concept of communism rejects liberal democracy and capitalism.
Nazism rejects the ideas of liberal democracy and the parliamentary system. However, along with this, it also supports anti-communism, racism, and antisemitism. Not only this, but Nazism also advocates the use of eugenics in their practices. This means that only those who have desirable or supposedly superior traits must mate with each other to change the dynamics of society.
Comparison Table Between Communism and Nazism
|Parameters of Comparison||Communism||Nazism|
|Meaning||Communism is an economic ideology that seeks a society without classes, hierarchies, and states.||Nazism is a totalitarian ideology that aims at building a society that consists of only the supposedly superior people.|
|Advocates||The ideology of communism was thought of by Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels.||Adolf Hitler was the person who introduced most people to Nazism and made it popular.|
|Perpetrators||Various organizations supported and spread communism in late 19th century Europe.||The National Socialist German Workers’ Party practiced Nazism in 19th century Europe.|
|Ideologies||Communism divides a society based on who does or does not become economically successful and asks the latter to revolt against the former.||Nazism divides people based on their ethnicity, religion, and race as well as considers the Aryan race to be central to their theories.|
|Practices||Communism accommodates a free society where everyone has equal rights and opportunities.||Nazism accommodates the wealthy class to stay at the top of the social hierarchy and have more power.|
|Political Stance||Communism is considered to be on the extreme left.||Nazism is considered to be on the extreme right.|
What is Communism?
Communism is a social, political, economic as well as philosophical ideology that holds its place on the extreme left-wing. It aims at forming a completely communist society. Here, every person contributes according to their abilities and is rewarded according to their needs. Social ideologies like class, hierarchy, state, and money are absent in such a society.
The ideology of communism divides people into two sections – those who are successful and those who are not. These people are termed as ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’. Communism encourages the non=wealthy sections of the society to revolt against those who are at the pinnacle of their power. Through this, they aim at creating a free society.
Even though communism accommodates equal rights and opportunities to everyone, it holds a strong stance against liberal democracy. The origin of this idea can be traced back to ancient Greece. Subsequently, thinkers like Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, and Tacitus talked about communism in Ancient Rome.
Later, it was Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels who brought up this ideology in the late 19th century. They wrote various books on the subject to spread the word and it somehow worked because various communist organizations were then formed.
What is Nazism?
Nazism is a fascist ideology that rejects the systems of liberal democracy and parliament. It revolves around the principles of antisemitism, anti, communism, and scientific racism. Moreover, it advocates the application of eugenics to create a supposedly pure society. However, these principles are based on pseudo-scientific theories of racial hierarchy.
Nazism also backs itself on the principle of social Darwinism. This concept regards the Germans as descendants of the alleged Aryan race. Due to this, those who had blue eyes and fair skin were considered to be racially superior. Nazism aimed at creating a pure society where only these racially superior and wealthy people lived.
Nazi Germany was responsible for the killings of millions of Jews during World War 2. A genocide of two-thirds of the Jewish population living in Germany was carried out. The murders were performed by mass shootings, extreme labor in concentration camps, gas chambers, gas vans, and extermination camps.
All of this began when Adolf Hitler was appointed as the Chancellor on the 30th of January 1933. He was responsible for bringing up and spreading the radical ideology of Nazism. He ordered the prosecution of millions of innocents whom he deemed as ‘undesirables’ based on their physical traits.
Main Differences Between Communism and Nazism
- Communism is an economic ideology that aims for a classless society while Nazism is a totalitarian ideology that divides people based on their class and race.
- Communism became popular because of Karl Marx and Fredrick Engels while Nazism was spread under Adolf Hitler.
- Communism aims at a society in which everyone has equal rights and opportunities while Nazism aims at building a pure society of wealthy people.
- Communism advocates a free society while Nazism advocates a fascist society.
- Communism is on the extreme left-wing while Nazism is on the extreme right-wing.
Communism and Nazism are both radically similar ideologies however, they have been tested and rejected in the past. Both of them hold an extreme stance in politics. Although, while one aims at a classless society, the other aims at creating a society where only the supposedly upper-class people live and flourish.
One of the most major differences between communism and Nazism is that communism holds its position on the far left while Nazism holds its position on the far right of the political spectrum.
Moreover, communism claims that its objective is to create a free society without classes or hierarchy. Contrarily, Nazism aims at creating a fascist society by terminating all those who are ‘undesirable’.