Difference Between Compact and Spongy (With Table)

Bones constitute the primary skeletal structure of the human body that provide support to the muscles and gives a shape to the body. Compact and spongy are the two basic types of the structural bones.

These bones helps in making the long bones in the body. The long bones are dense and hard bones that provides strength, structure and mobility to the body.

Compact vs Spongy

The difference between Compact and Spongy is that Compact bone tissues are made up of osteons and they construct the external layer of the bones. On the other hand, Spongy bone tissues are made up of trabeculae and they construct the inner part of the bones.

Comparison Table Between Compact and Spongy

Parameters of ComparisonCompactSpongy
DefinitionCompact bone tissues are made up of osteons and they construct the external layer of the bones. Spongy bone tissues are made up of trabeculae and they construct the inner part of the bones.
Another nameAnother name is cortical bones.Another name is cancellous or trabecular bones.
NatureThey are heavy and compact in nature.They are light, spongy and soft in nature.
Bone Marrow CavityBone marrow cavity is present in the center.Bone marrow cavity is absent.
AreaThey fill the outer layer of most of the bones.They fill the inner layer of most of the bones.
Made ofThey are made up of osteons.They are made up of trabeculae.
FormsThey construct the shaft or the diaphysis of the long bones.They construct the ends or the epiphyses of the long bones.
WorkBone marrow stores the fat molecules.Bone marrow produces the red corpuscles and the white granular corpuscles.

What is Compact?

Compact bone tissue is the cancellous portion of the bone which is made up of osteons and constructs the external layer of the human bones. Another name for them is cortical bones. They have a high amount of calcium content available in them.

The compact bone tissues are have a cylindrical shape and are hard in nature. They do not contain spaces between the lamellae. They have the bone marrow cavity present in the them. They contain yellow colored bone marrow and can take up to 80% weight of the skeleton.

The compact bone tissues can be found in the inner surface of the bone and constructs the major part of the long bones like the arms and the legs. They help in providing the structural support to the body and can also handle weight up to 5000 pounds.

What is Spongy?

Spongy bone tissue is the osseous tissue made up of trabeculae and construct the inner part of the bones. Another name for them is cancellous or the trabecular bones. They lack the presence of the bone marrow cavity and contain the red colored bone marrow.

Spongy bone tissues are made up of trabeculae and have a cuboidal shape. It fills the inner cavity of the bones that consists of the mineralized bars called as the trabeculae. They contain spaces between the lamellae.

Spongy bone tissues are soft and porous in nature. They can take around 20% weight of the skeleton. They cannot handle heavier weights. They have a very low calcium content present in them.

Spongy bone tissues constructs the major part of short bones like the wrists and the ankles. They are present in the outer layers of the bone and behave as a buffer to the compact bones tissues.

Main Differences Between Compact and Spongy

  1. Compact bone tissue is the cancellous part of the bone that constructs the external layer in the bones. On the other hand, spongy bone tissue is the osseous tissue that constructs the inner part of the bones.
  2. Compact bone tissues have another name as cortical bones. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues have another name as cancellous or the trabecular bones.
  3. Compact bone tissues are made up of osteons. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues are made up of trabeculae.
  4. Compact bone tissues have a bone marrow cavity present in them. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues do not have a bone marrow cavity present in them.
  5. Compact bone tissues do not contain spaces between the lamellae. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues contain spaces between the lamellae.
  6. Compact bone tissues have a cylindrical shape. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues have a cuboidal shape.
  7. Compact bone tissues are hard in nature. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues are soft and porous in nature.
  8. Compact bone tissues contain high content of calcium present in them. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues contain high content of calcium present in them.
  9. Compact bone tissues can take 80% weight of the skeleton. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues can take 20% weight of the skeleton.
  10. Bone marrow in compact bone tissues can store fat molecules whereas bone marrow in spongy bone tissues produces the red corpuscles and the white granular corpuscles.
  11. Compact bone tissues contain yellow bone marrow. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues contain red bone marrow.
  12. Compact bone tissues constructs the major portion of long bones like the arms and the legs. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues constructs the major portion of short bones like the wrists and the ankles.
  13. Compact bone tissues are present in the inner part of the bone whereas spongy bone tissues are present in the outer part of the bone.
  14. Compact bone tissues can provide support to weight up to 5000 pounds whereas spongy bone tissues cannot provide support to heavy weights.
  15. Compact bone tissues help in providing the structural support to the body. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues behave as a buffer to the compact bone tissues.

Conclusion

Compact and Spongy are the two types of structural bones that helps in building the long bones of the body.

The compact bone tissues constructs the outer layer of the bones and help in providing structural support to the body. On the other hand, spongy bone tissues constructs the inner part of the bones and behave as a buffer to the compact bone tissues.

References

  1. https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/146337
  2. https://iris.unimore.it/handle/11380/638220
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