Difference Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis (With Table)

There are different processes performed by the cell. They are metabolism, diffusion, respiration, active transport, osmosis. All of these processes are very important for the proper function of them, in metabolism chemical reaction takes place for maintaining the life, in diffusion molecules move in and out of the cells, in respiration is the process in which combining of oxygen with the foodstuff molecules, in active transport with the help of cellular energy molecules moves around the cell membrane, in osmosis water moves across the membrane. Further, these processes are divided into different categories.

An example of such a process can be Endosmosis, and Exosmosis is an example of osmosis. Following is important information related to these processes.

Endosmosis vs Exosmosis

The difference between endosmosis and Exosmosis is that both of them involve different water movements along with other factors being opposite. Water moves into the cell in case of endosmosis, and it moves out of the cell in case of Exosmosis. They are placed in different solutions in order to make sure these processes occur, in the case of endosmosis the solution is hypotonic and in case of Exosmosis, the solution is the hypertonic solution. There are different results in cells when the process occurs. The cell may swell or turgid or, in some cases, burst out in case of endosmosis, whereas the cells might shrink along with the cytoplasm in case of Exosmosis. Except these, they can be differentiated based on the water potential in comparison to the cytosol, solvent and solute concentration, etc.

Endosmosis is the type of osmosis process which takes place when the cell is placed in the hypotonic solution and the water moves inside the cell. The water potential is higher than the potential of cytosol. The cell during this process tends to swell or burst out (in the case of animals mostly) as a result. This process takes place when the solute concentration of the surroundings is less than that of the inside the cell.

Exosmosis is the type of osmosis process which takes place when the cell is placed in the hypertonic solution and the water moves outside the cell. The water potential is lower than the potential of cytosol. The cell and cytoplasm during this process tend to shrink as a result. This process takes place when the solute concentration of the surroundings is higher than that of the outside cell.

Comparison Table Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis

Parameters of ComparisonEndosmosisExosmosis
Water MovementInto cellOut of the cell
Type of solutionPlaced in hypotonic solutionsPlaced in hypertonic solutions
Water Potential (than cytosol)HigherLower
Result in CellsSwellShrink
Human SignificanceWater intoxicantsDehydration

What is Endosmosis?

This is the movement of water or any solvent solution across a semipermeable membrane. It is a passive process. The inside of it is hypertonic (and outside hypotonic) that has a higher solute concentration than its outside surroundings. It increases the turgor pressure of a cell. As more water enters the cell, it causes it to swell and sometimes even burst out. And this mostly occurs in the case of animal cells than of plants cells due to the presence of a cell wall. 

This process is also important for humans, as it is required to keep us alive. But in the case when endosmosis is high in humans, it may cause to destroy the cells and sometimes result in the death of the individual. Therefore, a person with overhydration tends to end up with water intoxicants quickly as compared to any other individual. 

This process also takes place in animals, for example, freshwater fish, where the solution might be hypertonic.

What is Exosmosis?

It is the movement of water or solvent which moves out of the cell. Exo means outside, which clearly defines the process. It takes place when the osmosis process is relatively higher. It only takes place when the cell is placed in hypertonic. As a result of this process, the cell tends to shrink rather than get swell, as in the case of endosmosis due to moving out of the water. 

This process is not limited to plants only; it can also take place in humans and animals. In animals, it takes place in saltwater fish, where they experience changes in ion concentration, and in a human, it takes place when the dehydration or water is lost from the body of the individual. If the Exosmosis take place in high quantity in human, it may lead to serious problems in the individual as the proper quantity of water is required in the human body.

Main Differences Between Endosmosis and Exosmosis

  1. The main difference between Endosmosis and Exosmosis is the water movement in endosmosis, water movement is inside the cell, whereas in Exosmosis, the water movement is opposite of it as it moves outside the cell.
  2. This process occurs when cells are placed in different solutions. Cells need to be placed in the hypotonic solution for the endosmosis process to carry out, and cell has to be placed in the hypertonic solution for the Exosmosis process to occur.
  3. The concentration of the solute also plays an important role in these processes. Solute concentration inside cell needs to be more than the solute concentration outside surroundings for occurrence of endosmosis, while solute concentration inside cell needs to be less than the solute concentration outside surroundings for occurrence of Exosmosis.
  4. There is also a different change in the result of the cell in these processes. As a result of endosmosis, cells may swell, whereas the result is opposite in the case of Exosmosis as the cell may shrink as a result of it.
  5. Cytosol’s water potential is less than the water potential of the surroundings in the case of the endosmosis process, whereas the cytosol’s water potential is higher than the water potential of the surroundings in the case of the Exosmosis.
  6. There are many examples of them, in case of endosmosis soil into hair cells, freshwater fish, water intoxicants are plants, animals, human significance examples respectively and in case of Exosmosis root hair cell into root cortex, saltwater fish, dehydration are examples of plants, animals, human significance respectively.

Conclusion

Therefore, with the help of the above differences and other information, there should not be any confusion between endosmosis and Exosmosis. Osmosis is a process that takes place without any expenditure of energy and involves the movement of molecules. Any solvent is capable of undergoing this process. There are three different solutions involved during this process; these are isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic.

With isotonic solution concentration of the solution inside and outside the cell and therefore, both endosmosis and Exosmosis do not take place in this solution; they only take place when the concentration is different in surroundings (inside and outside). There is the formula for calculating the osmosis pressure, Π=MRT, Π is osmosis pressure, M is molar concentration, R is gas constant, T is temperature.

References

  1. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01871669
  2. https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/BF01252056.pdf
  3. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4614-7516-3_2
  4. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF01940930
  5. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/abs/10.1098/rspl.1868.0074
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