GDP vs National Income: Difference and Comparison

Many factors are used while determining the growth of a country. While studying these different aspects, t is easy to get confused as to what these terms exactly mean.

But the fundamental factors differentiate these aspects as separate entities, and it is important to learn each entity correctly to understand the growth of the country properly.

Key Takeaways

  1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the total market value of goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a given period.
  2. National income is the sum of all income earned by residents of a country, including wages, profits, and rent.
  3. GDP is a widely-used indicator of a country’s economic performance, while national income helps gauge the overall financial well-being of its citizens.

GDP vs National Income

GDP means Gross National Product is the total value of goods and services procured and provided within a country, or the complete economic output of the company. National income is the total value generated by individuals and businesses in a company, regardless of where the goods and services are sold.

GDP vs National Income

Gross National Product (GDP) is the total value of all the goods produced within the country and services provided by the country.

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Thus GDP is the complete economic output of the country. Thus GDP includes the total market value of all the goods and services produced within the country in a set period.

National Income is the total value generated by all individuals and businesses, irrespective of where the goods and services were sold.

It calculates the total income and also considers money received from foreign investments while determining the Gross National Income (GNI). Thus, the National Income is focused on the country’s overall economic health.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonGDPNational Income
DefinitionGDP estimates the total value of all the goods and services produced within the country.National Income calculates the total values earned by the businesses and individuals of a country.
ObjectiveGDP measures the overall economic output of the country.National Income estimates the economic health of the country.
CalculationsGDP is the sum total of the national consumer spending, total government spending, net exports, and the amount of business capitalNational Income is calculated by adding the difference of money flowing from foreign countries and money flowing to foreign countries to the GDP.
ExceptionsThe goods and services produced outside the country are not included.The goods and services produced by foreign nationals living in the country are not included.
Measurement DomainGDP is a domestic production measurement.National Income is an international production comparison measurement.

What is GDP?

GDP stands for Gross Domestic Production. It is an estimate of the total value of all the goods and services produced within the country.

Thus it is used to determine the domestic income of a country. GDP is based on the ownership of a means of production. Thus it only considers the businesses based inside the country.

GDP is calculated by considering the overall sum of the total national consumer spending, total government spending, business capital, and net exports.

As only companies based entirely within the physical borders of a country are considered for determining the GDP, it is a powerful tool for measuring the overall economic output of a country.

There are two methods used for calculating the GDP, the Expenditure method and the Income Method. The expenditure method is the most common method used by economic and financial institutions.

The Income method calculates GDP by considering the various incomes generated. GDP using this method is calculated by taking the summation of the National Income, the statistical discrepancy, and the capital consumption allowance.

The GDP and other economic factors like the Gross National Product and the Gross National Income are used together to determine the National Income.

gdp

What is National Income?

National income is the factor that calculates the total income value generated from all the goods and services produced by the country.

It calculates the total income earned by the businesses and individuals of the country in a given period. As it is a direct calculation of income, it is a factor used to determine the country’s economic health.

National Income is calculated after estimating the GDP of the country. For calculating National Income, the difference between the money flowing from foreign countries and the money flowing to foreign countries is added to the GDP.

Generally, the factors such as GDP, GNP, and GNI are used together to determine the National Income. Thus National Income is a Macroeconomic factor as compared to GDP, which is a microeconomic factor.     

While calculating the National Income, the goods and services produced by foreign individuals living in the country are not included.

Thus National Income estimates the total contribution of the people and businesses of the country in increasing national production.

Along with the production, National income also considers the capital coming from foreign sources, such as foreign investments and other international capital gains. For the calculations, the period for income generation is generally taken as one year.

national income

Main Differences Between GDP and National Income

  1. GDP estimates the total value of all the goods and services produced within the country. National Income calculates the total income generated by businesses and individuals in a country.
  2. GDP measures the overall economic output of the country. National Income estimates the economic health of the country.
  3. GDP is the sum of national consumer spending, total government spending, business capital and net exports. National Income is the sum of GDP and the difference between money flowing from foreign countries and the money flowing to foreign countries.
  4.  In GDP calculations, the goods and services imported into the country are not included. In National Income, the goods and services produced by foreign nationals living in the country are not included.
  5. GDP is a domestic production measurement. National income is an international production comparison measurement.
Difference Between GDP and National Income
References
  1. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9781400873630/html
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304407605000163
  3. https://www.nber.org/system/files/chapters/c2258/c2258.pdf
  4. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2296597
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