Difference Between GDR and ADR (With Table)

Time change, people change. So do our lifestyle and the need. Stock markets have been playing an important role in stabilising the economic growth of a country. Not only this, certificates like ADR and GDR have played a significant role in foreign stock markets. However, they’re different from each other in many ways.


The difference between GDR and ADR is that the full form of GDR is global depository receipt, whereas ADR is pronounced as American depository receipt. Also, they differ market-wise. ADR, on the one hand, is a negotiable paper that works in the American stock market while the GDR works in European stock markets.

The GDR or global depository receipt is a paper that works in the European stock market. They represent a foreign company that can trade in markets except for American stock markets. They are issued to a specific region where they’re allowed to establish their place and can sell their shares to the people. Also, GDR is more of an institutional market that is quite favourable for institutions that are more into finance.

The ADR, or we elaborate as American depository receipt, is a method by which a company aims to raise funds and finances for itself in an international stock exchange. They represent non-US stock companies that participate in American Markets only. ADR is more like a retail investor market, and that works only in the dollar.

Comparison Table Between GDR and ADR

Parameters of ComparisonGDRADR
AbbreviationGDR is elaborated as a Global Depository Receipt.ADR is pronounced as American Depository Receipt.
JurisdictionIf a company applies in European stock markets, it cannot allow them to establish in American Markets.American Markets allows foreign companies to raise funds in their market, limiting them to raise funds in European markets.
Issued inGDR is issued in the European capital market.ADR is issued in the American domestic capital market.
MarketThe market of GDR is an institutional market favourable for financial institutions.It’s more like a retail investor market.
Listed in Stock exchanges in America like NYSE, NASDAQ. The London stock exchange, Luxembourg stock market.

What is GDR?

Well, a company need funds to raise its bar. For this, they work harder to get to the point or lookout for some funds that can elevate their graphs. One way is that they establish themselves in foreign stock markets where they can raise the values and can find themselves in their comfort zone.

The GDR, or we say global depository receipt is a kind of bank certified paper that is issued in more than one country for the shares in a foreign company. Well, it’s found effective for either the company chairman or the person buying their shares in his hometown stock exchange.

Suppose if we take a US-based company that wants its shares to be available in London or Hongkong exchange, it’s possible through GDR. Well, all it takes is to consult and ask for an issued certificate by the bank that will allow it to register himself in their global stock exchange.

However, it takes lots of paperwork and signature to get work done. The private market uses this formula to raise capital intensively. Also, they receive funds in either dollars or Euros. When a market wants Euros instead of dollars, GDR is referred to as EDRs. It’s an efficient way to take the existing graphs of profits on the moon. Yes, this can be said as a technique to explore the world and diversify the choices and company.

What is ADR?

When a foreign company wishes to register its company in American stock exchanges delivering shares and intends to raise the capital, the banks and authorities issue a certificate or a bank paper that’s like a permit for the firm to start selling their shares at a price in exchanges.

This official declaration paper is known as the American depository receipt. This is a verified way of getting things easy for a company and registering in American markets. ADR is denominated in U.S. dollar, along with underlying security held by U.S. financial management, mostly by an overseas branch.

ADRs trade on American stock exchanges. Also, dividends are pegged under the United States dollar. This paper doesn’t allow the company to sell shares or function in non-US stock markets as these are against the terms and conditions. Advantages can be they’re easy to track and trade.

Also, since it’s denominated in dollar, that counts as the second advantage. Some more perks available through brokers are listed in U.S. stock markets exchanges. Also, they diversify the portfolio. Some drawbacks can be the company can face double taxation, finite selection of companies, currency conversion fee may be applicable if the company doesn’t accept the dollar.

Main Differences Between GDR and ADR

  1. The GDR is elaborated as a global depository receipt, while the ADR is pronounced like an American depository receipt.
  2. The GDR is a paper issued by the bank based in Europe, while the ADR is a negotiable paper issued by American agencies.
  3. GDR doesn’t allow the company to register itself in American stock exchanges, while an American depositary receipt doesn’t allow the company to register itself in the global stock exchanges
  4. European stock markets like London stock exchange, Luxembourg stock market while American stock exchanges like NYSE, NASDAQ.
  5. The GDR is mostly an institutional market, while the ADR is a retail investor market.


These two papers are so powerful in themselves. Indeed they’re papers that make sure a company aids himself and the people by delivering shares in exchanges. However, there are some drawbacks as well that hinder the growth.

ADR and GDR is a sign of progress. Also, these papers make sure that one sitting in a country can buy parts of a foreign company. Well, it’s really a nice and beautiful thing if we see it from far. Yet, there are points that the government and agencies to improve upon to serve better.


  1. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=amjfBQAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=GDR&ots=p-zzfzoLrD&sig=F6HoipOHPV96zOS82I8Yc7Ry33Q
  2. http://publications.iupac.org/pac/1984/pdf/5605×0595.pdf
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