Greek Orthodox vs Roman Catholics: Difference and Comparison

Christianity is one of the most widely practiced religions in the world, with around 2.3 billion followers. It is broadly split into 3 branches, Catholic, Protestant, and (Eastern) Orthodox.

While Catholics and Orthodox have been prevalent longer, Protestantism began in the 16th century. In the 4th century, Christianity was prevalent in 5 areas, Constantinople (Turkey), Alexandria (Egypt), Jerusalem (Israel), Antioch (Greece), and Rome (Italy).

As Islam flourished, Constantinople and Rome became the epicenters of Christianity. With time, the powers in these places started to withdraw.

Due to linguistic and cultural differences and various religious disagreements and political conflicts resulting in the Great Schism (Schism of 1054), the division of Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches, has lasted since the 11th century.


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Key Takeaways

  1. The Greek Orthodox Church is known for its use of Byzantine iconography and is led by a Patriarch, while the Roman Catholic Church is led by the Pope and is known for its ornate cathedrals.
  2. Greek Orthodox Christians strongly emphasize the divine liturgy and the use of incense during worship, while Roman Catholics focus more on the Eucharist and the sacraments.
  3. Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholics have different beliefs about original sin and salvation, with the former emphasizing ancestral sin and the latter focusing on redemption through faith and good works.

Greek Orthodox vs. Roman Catholics

The difference between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholics is that for the Roman Catholics, the Pope is infallible and has complete authority over the churches, whereas, in Greek Orthodox churches, the Pope is not infallible.

Greek orthodox vs Roman catholics

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonGreek OrthodoxRoman Catholics
Other NameEastern Orthodox/ Byzantine OrthodoxWestern Church
Seat of PowerConstantinopleRome
Ultimate AuthorityPatriarchPope
Members of the ClergyPriests who were allowed to marryPriests who practiced celibacy
FastingFast almost half the yearFast rigorously on Fridays
WorshipVenerate icons.Venerate statues
Language of serviceNative languageLatin
Involvement of childrenFully includedBaptized but not allowed to participate fully
Famous churchSt Andrew’s CathedralSt. Peter’s Basilica Vatican City

What is the Greek Orthodox Church?

It is one of the three major jurisdictional groups of Christianity. Around 200 million people around the world follow the Orthodox tradition.

Its followers live mainly in the Balkans, the Middle East, and former Soviet countries. The word orthodox has its roots in the Greek words orthos (‘right’) and doxa (‘belief’), thus meaning “right believing.”

It refers to communities or individuals who preserved their true faith. Greek Orthodox churches are made up of several self-governing Churches that are sometimes ‘autocephalous’ (having their head) or ‘autonomous’ (self-governing).

They believe that God revealed himself in Jesus Christ. They also believe in the incarnation of Christ, his crucifixion, and resurrection.

Orthodox churches stress a way of living and a belief expressed particularly through worship. Their form of worshipping God was followed from the very beginnings of Christianity.

The Orthodox Bible is the same as most Churches, except that its Old Testament is based on the ancient Jewish translation into Greek called the Septuagint and not on Hebrew. Fasting plays an important part in the Orthodox Christian life.

According to their holy books, Orthodox Christians must fast around 180–200 days yearly. They believe that fasting can be the ‘foundation of all good.’

They follow four main fasting periods:

  1. The Great Fast or the period of Lent
  2. The Dormition Fast is from 1st August to 14th August.
  3. The Fast of the Apostles: Eight days after Pentecost until 28th June.
  4. The Christmas Fast is from 15 November to 24th December.

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What is the Roman Catholic Church?

The Roman Catholic Church is another ancient religious institution with over a billion members worldwide. It is the largest Christian body in the world.

The word Catholic in Greek means “Universal.” Catholics believe Jesus Christ came to earth to redeem humanity’s sins through His death and resurrection.

They also believe that the Holy Bible is the inspired word of God. The leader of the Roman Catholic Church is the Bishop, also called the Pope.

He is called apostolic successor, an unbroken line back to Peter. The Pope has the supreme authority.

He can speak infallibly on matters of faith. Catholic churches are a union of 24 different churches, each having their form of practice.

The Roman church is the largest of them all. They ordain only celibate men to the priesthood. 

Catholics believe that the purpose of fasting is to have a spiritual focus and to bring in self-discipline. They fast during Lent, on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, and all Fridays throughout the year. 

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Main Differences Between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholics

  1. Roman Catholics regard the Pope as infallible, while Greek Orthodox believers don’t.
  2.  Roman Catholic priests are celibate, and Greek Orthodox Christians can marry before ordinating.
  3.  Orthodox Christian babies are fully engaged in the church while the Catholic kids are baptized, but they can’t fully participate until later.
  4. Roman Catholics use statues to represent the saints, while the Orthodox Church has an iconographic tradition.
  5. Roman Catholics tend to kneel in prayer, while Orthodox worshippers stand.
  6. The Roman Catholics believe in purgatory and the system of indulgences, while the Orthodox don’t. 
  7. Roman Catholics use unleavened wafers, while members of the Greek Orthodox Church use unleavened bread.
  8. The services are in Latin in Roman Catholic churches, while in Greek Orthodox churches, the services are held in native languages.
  9. The Orthodox Church follows the Julian calendar, which celebrates Christian festivals on different dates than Catholics. The Catholics follow the Gregorian calendar. 
Difference Between Greek Orthodox and Roman Catholics
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