Intellectual vs Developmental Disability: Difference and Comparison

There are numerous labels used to characterize a handicap, but when it gets down to that as well, there are 2 kinds: intellectual and developmental.

Although developmental disorders may include people with intellectual disorders, the two conditions are not always the same. Let’s take a closer look at some of these two distinct groups and also what each implies.

Key Takeaways

  1. Intellectual disability is when an individual has below-average intelligence and difficulty with everyday tasks such as communication and self-care.
  2. Developmental disability is a group of conditions that affect an individual’s physical, cognitive, and social development.
  3. Intellectual disability is characterized by a lower-than-average IQ score, while developmental disability may or may not affect a person’s IQ.

Intellectual Disability vs Developmental Disability

The difference between Intellectual Disabilities and Developmental disabilities is that Intellectual disability is a type of developmental disorder. The term “developmental disability” refers to a wide range of conditions. So, in a sense, paraplegia is just a physical illness. Dementia is a type of cognitive impairment.

Intellectual Disability vs Developmental Disability

Intellectual disability (ID), also referred to as a generic learning difficulty and was once mental retardation (MR), is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by markedly reduced intellectual as well as behavioural competence.

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Syndromic intellectual impairments include Down syndrome as well as Fragile X syndrome.

Developmental disability is just a range of conditions caused by a disability in one or more of the following areas: physical, learning, language, or behaviour.

These disorders emerge during the formative era, have an effect on day-to-day activity, and last a human’s entire life.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonIntellectual DisabilityDevelopmental Disability
ScopeThe term “intellectual disability” refers to a single condition that affects both intellectual as well as adaptive performance.Developmental disability, but from the other hand, seems to have a broader reach because it includes numerous disorders, congenital vision, including intellectual disability.
ClassificationPeople with intellectual disabilities are frequently classified as mild, medium, severe, or substantial.Someone with developmental disabilities, but at the other side, are classified based on specific illnesses, abnormalities, or disabilities such as auditory, visual, cognitive, mobility, self-care, as well as assisted living.
Age of StartAccording to diagnostic criteria, the development of the intellectually disabled occurs throughout childhood, particularly before the age of 18.In the case of developmental disability, such signs should be seen before the age of 22.
Physical DisabilitiesPhysical disorders are not included in the criterion for intellectual disability.However developmental disabilities comprise physical problems like sight, hearing, articulation, as well as mobility problems.
Risk Factors and Causes
Genetic diseases (fragile X autism, Down syndrome, Turner’s dysfunction, etc.), teratogens (drug misuse, starvation, radiation, illnesses, etc.), as well as head injuries or illnesses are frequent causes of intellectual disability.Because the extent of developmental disability is broader, its risk conditions and include those of intellectual disability and many other variables such as early life accidents, mother’s age all through childbirth, exposure to toxins, Rh factor illness, contagious diseases, genetic inheritance, conception as well as infant comorbidities.

What is Intellectual Disability?

Intellectual disabilities are problems that appear before age 18 and may be caused by physical factors like cerebral palsy or autistic personality, as well as non-physical factors other than a lack of engagement. 

Intellectual disabilities are distinguished by a lack of emotional capability as well as trouble with adaptive actions such as dealing with rituals or social circumstances.

Intellectual impairment is defined as having a lower-than-average intelligence quotient (IQ) as well as a lack of daily life abilities.

This disorder was previously classified as “mental retardation.” Due to the obvious disgusting way under which it was frequently used,

the word has been largely ignored by the government of the people and is hardly used now.

Intellectual disabilities can be extremely debilitating in kids. Children with moderate instances can subsequently be developed with the right training and support programs and activities.

Extra advanced instances necessitate one more assistance at work and home.

What is Developmental Disability?

Developmental impairments are those that manifest before the age of 22. They are impairments that last a lifetime and impact one or even both intellectual and cognitive performance.

Some of these limitations are physical, such as blindness since infancy.

Other, such as Mental retardation, cerebral palsy, or even other hereditary factors, produce both tangible and intangible problems.

Developmental disabilities are a variety of situations caused by a disability in one or more of the following areas: physical, learning, communication, or behaviour.

These problems emerge during adolescent growth. The origins of developmental disorders are diverse, and in many cases, they are unclear.

Even in instances of recognized aetiology, the border between “cause” as well as “effect” may not always be apparent, making categorizing causes problematic.

Developmental disorders have consistently been associated with genetic causes.

These characteristics are also thought to have a significant environmental element and the relative proportions of nature vs nurture, which have long been contested. 

Main Differences Between Intellectual Disability and Developmental Disability

  1. The term “intellectual disability” refers to a single condition that affects both intellectual as well as adaptive performance. Developmental disability, but on the other hand, seems to have a broader reach because it includes numerous disorders, congenital vision, including intellectual disability.
  2. People with intellectual disabilities are frequently classified as mild, medium, severe, or substantial. Someone with developmental disabilities, but on the other side, are classified based on specific illnesses, abnormalities, or disabilities such as auditory, visual, cognitive, mobility, self-care, as well as assisted living.
  3. According to diagnostic criteria, the development of the intellectually disabled occurs throughout childhood, particularly before the age of 18. Whereas, in the case of developmental disability, such signs should be seen before age 22.
  4. Physical disorders are not included in the criterion for intellectual disability. However, developmental disabilities comprise physical problems like sight, hearing, articulation, as well as mobility problems.
  5. Genetic diseases (fragile X autism, Down syndrome, Turner’s dysfunction, etc.), teratogens (drug misuse, starvation, radiation, illnesses, etc.), as well as head injuries or illnesses are frequent causes of intellectual disability. Because the extent of developmental disability is broader, its risk conditions and include those of intellectual disability and many other variables such as early life accidents, mother’s age all through childbirth, exposure to toxins, Rh factor illness, contagious diseases, genetic inheritance, conception, as well as infant comorbidities.
References
  1. https://meridian.allenpress.com/ajidd/article-abstract/116/6/401/7893/Overweight-and-Obesity-Among-Adults-With
  2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5931165/

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