miRNA vs Sirna: Difference and Comparison

Both MIRNA, as well as SIRNA are termed non-coding RNAs. They play an important role in gene regulation. They can even be utilized to cure cancer and infections as a unique class of medicinal medicines.

Both miRNA and SIRNA are short, duplex RNA molecules that target messenger RNA (mRNA) at the post-transcriptional stage to silence genes.

Key Takeaways

  1. miRNAs regulate gene expression by binding to partially complementary mRNA sequences, while siRNAs bind fully complementary sequences to degrade target mRNA.
  2. Researchers synthesize siRNAs for targeted gene silencing in labs, while miRNAs naturally occur in cells as part of their gene regulatory mechanisms.
  3. siRNAs are more specific in their targets, leading to fewer off-target effects, whereas miRNAs can regulate multiple genes due to their partial complementarity.

Mirna vs Sirna

miRNAs are short RNA molecules that regulate gene expression by binding to messenger RNA (mRNA) and preventing it from being translated into protein. siRNAs are double-stranded RNA molecules that can target and degrade specific mRNA molecules, effectively silencing the expression of the corresponding gene.

Mirna vs Sirna

MicroRNA also known as MIRNA, is a single-stranded, small RNA molecule of 19-25 nucleotides. MIRNA creates a complex termed miRISC when it binds to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) protein.

Then, using partial complementary base pairing, mRNAs with complementary sequences to antisense RNA strands in the miRISC complex are chosen.

Small interfering RNA, also known as SIRNA, is a relatively short, duplex RNA that silences gene expression by cleaving the messenger RNA (mRNA). Because SIRNA can only target a single mRNA molecule, it can accomplish precise gene expression suppression.

Furthermore, because SIRNA is not found in mammals naturally, it can be utilized as a targeted medicinal agent.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonMIRNASIRNA
Occurrence  Animals and plants both have MIRNA.Mammalian SIRNA is absent in lower animals and plants.
Structure  MIRNA is a single-stranded molecule that is 18-25 nucleotides long.SIRNA is a duplex molecule with a two-nucleotide.
Dicer Processing Before  MIRNA is in its precursor MIRNA from before dicer processing, having 70-100 nucleotides with dispersed mismatches. The hairpin loop structure of pre-MIRNA exists.SIRNA is a double-stranded RNA molecule of 30-100 nucleotides that is double-stranded before dicer processing.
Complementariness  The MIRNA and the mRNA are partly complementary.The SIRNA or Small interfering RNA is a perfect match for the target mRNA.
Gene Regulation Mechanisms  MIRNA inhibits translation by causing mRNA degradation.Endonucleolytic cleavage controls gene expression through SIRNA.
Regulation  The same genes from which the MIRNA is produced, as well as many others, are regulated by the MIRNA.Only the genes from which the SIRNA is transcribed are regulated by SIRNA.
Clinical Applications  MIRNA can be utilized as a biomarker, therapeutic target, diagnostic tool, or pharmacological target.As a therapeutic agent, SIRNA is used.

What is Mirna?

MIRNA is a natural molecule, and it cannot be created artificially or synthetically in the laboratory or by the use of chemical compounds. It is, by default, present in nature. In 1993, the first MIRNA or MicroRNA, was identified in C. Elegans.

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Small interfering RNA (MIRNA) is a kind of RNA that suppresses gene expression at the post-transcriptional stage.

RNA polymerase performs the transcription of MIRNA genes to create primary MIRNA (pri-MIRNA). The 5′ end of the pri-MIRNA is capped, while the 3′ end is polyadenylated, forming a double-stranded stem-loop structure.

A microprocessor complex cleaves these pri-MIRNA molecules, producing the precursor MIRNA (pre-MIRNA).

Pre-MIRNA molecules have 70-100 nucleotides in their duplex form. Whenever there is a high rate of complementarity in the target, endonucleolytic cleavage in MIRNA is rare. The MIRNA’s untranslated regions are primarily targeted.

Exportin 5 transfers pre-MIRNA molecules from its nucleus to the cytoplasm, where they are processed into MIRNA by Dicer proteins. As a result, MIRNA is an RNA duplex of 18-25 nucleotides. Dicer proteins are a kind of RNase III-like enzyme with a specific function.  

microrna

What is Sirna?

Sirna is a natural and synthetic substance that may be made artificially or synthetically in a lab or with chemical components. It can also be found in the wild.

In C. Elegans, SIRNA was initially recognized in a mechanism known as RNA interference (RNAi), which involves efficient gene suppression by foreign RNA.

Inside the cell, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules can be produced through transcription of cellular genes, pathogen infection, or artificial introduction.

Dicer proteins break this dsRNA into tiny dsRNAs known as SIRNA. These siRNAs have two nucleotide overhangs at the 3′ end and are 21-23 nucleotides long.

The cytoplasmic SIRNA is linked with RISC proteins, and the sense strand of the SIRNA molecule is broken by the RISC endonuclease argonaute 2 (AGO2).

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RNA intrusion is facilitated by MIRNA or SIRNA, which are smaller RNA molecules. The same process is used by both kinds of smaller RNA particles to regulate gene expression.

Scientists are now utilizing artificial SIRNA, which mimics endogenous MIRNA, to silence certain genes which cause cancer, albeit the success rate is still too low.

The antisense RNA strand of the SIRNA, which is still linked to the RISC protein, recognizes the appropriate mRNA molecule. The AGO2 component is responsible for cleaving the target mRNA molecule.

sirna

Main Differences Between Mirna and Sirna

  1. Micro ribonucleic acid (MIRNA) and small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) are two types of RNA molecules.
  2. The SIRNA has essential functions in gene silencing, and MIRNA plays a crucial part in gene regulation.
  3. While MIRNA is a single-stranded ribonucleic acid molecule, SIRNA is a double-stranded ribonucleic acid molecule.
  4. Both MIRNA and SIRNA function on RNA interference (RNAi), however, when combined with an RNA-induced silencing complex, SIRNA, which is double-stranded, is better for cleaving RNA (RISC).
  5. While MIRNA attaches to its target poorly at many locations, SIRNA attaches to its target perfectly at just one.

Refrences

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169409X09000969
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2162253116300373

Last Updated : 09 August, 2023

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24 thoughts on “miRNA vs Sirna: Difference and Comparison”

  1. The detailed description of miRNA and siRNA processing and their clinical applications is highly educational. This post provides a comprehensive overview of these non-coding RNA molecules.

    Reply
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      Reply
    • Absolutely, the detailed discussion of miRNA and siRNA processing elucidates their key roles in gene regulation. The potential for therapeutic use is particularly fascinating.

      Reply
  2. The distinction between miRNA and siRNA in terms of their occurrence, structure, and complementarity is well articulated in this article. It’s fascinating to consider the differences in their gene regulation mechanisms.

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    • I share your fascination with the differences between miRNA and siRNA. The clinical applications section also highlights the potential for therapeutic use.

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  3. The article effectively outlines the differences in the biological synthesis of miRNA and siRNA. The comparisons provided are very informative.

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    • I agree with your assessment. Understanding the distinct mechanisms of miRNA and siRNA synthesis is essential for appreciating their functions in gene regulation.

      Reply
    • Absolutely, the detailed comparison of miRNA and siRNA synthesis sheds light on their unique roles in cellular processes.

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  4. The article effectively highlights the distinct functions of miRNA and siRNA in gene regulation. This comparison provides valuable insight into their biological roles.

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    • Absolutely, the delineation of miRNA and siRNA functions in this article is highly informative. The potential for therapeutic applications is particularly intriguing.

      Reply
    • I concur with your assessment. The discussion of miRNA and siRNA functions offers valuable insights into their regulatory capabilities.

      Reply
  5. Thank you for the insightful comparison between miRNA and siRNA. It is clear that both of these non-coding RNAs play crucial roles in gene regulation and have potential therapeutic applications.

    Reply
    • I completely agree with your analysis. The distinctions between miRNA and siRNA in terms of structure, occurrence, and gene regulation mechanisms are quite fascinating.

      Reply
  6. The examination of miRNA and siRNA in this post is very thorough. The distinctions between their occurrence, structure, and gene regulation mechanisms are quite compelling.

    Reply
    • Absolutely, the detailed examination of miRNA and siRNA characteristics in this article is quite enlightening. The comparison table is particularly helpful.

      Reply
    • I share your view. The article provides a comprehensive comparison of miRNA and siRNA that elucidates their distinct properties and functions.

      Reply
  7. The detailed breakdown of miRNA and siRNA in this post is incredibly informative. It’s remarkable to see the potential of these non-coding RNAs in medical applications.

    Reply
  8. The comparison between miRNA and siRNA in this article is highly informative. The exploration of their structural and functional differences offers valuable insights into their biological roles.

    Reply
    • I couldn’t agree more. The article provides a comprehensive comparison of miRNA and siRNA, highlighting their unique characteristics and potential applications.

      Reply
  9. The detailed explanation of miRNA processing and its role in gene regulation is quite enlightening. It’s amazing to see the complexity of biological processes at work.

    Reply
    • I couldn’t agree more. The mechanisms by which miRNA and siRNA function are truly remarkable. This post provides an excellent overview.

      Reply
  10. The comparison table provided here is very helpful in understanding the differences and similarities between miRNA and siRNA. The clinical applications of both types of RNA are particularly interesting.

    Reply
    • Absolutely, the clinical applications of miRNA and siRNA highlight their potential in the field of medicine. This is a fascinating area of research.

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