Difference Between RPC and Document

RPC and Document formatting are two of the most used terminology concerning Web services and SOAP protocol. Online Services Description Language (WSDL) papers are frequently used to define web services. Relying on the method call and its variables, the RPC style creates a WSDL document. The WSDL document has no type of definition. The type is contained in the document style, which may be checked against the preset schema.

RPC vs Document

The main difference between RPC and document is that the conveyed information is difficult to examine by the SOAP message in the RPC/literal style, however, signals in the Document/Literal style may always be evaluated using any XML validator. Furthermore, RPC and document style also have different binding styles, which are sometimes known as SOAP binding formats.

RPC vs Document

RPC is an abbreviation for remote procedure calls. It is a program connection protocol that enables one program to seek services from some other program on a system without needing to comprehend the network’s intricacies. RPC is used to invoke other processes on distant computers, just as it would on a local system.

In Document style web services, we can convey an XML message as part of a SOAP request. Document-style web services are best suited for applications in which an XML communication operates as a document, the content of which might change, and the aim of the web service does not depend on the contents of the XML message.

Comparison Table Between RPC and Document

Parameters of ComparisonRPCDocument
MeaningA program that interposes communicationAlso known as message-oriented style is the default setting as a SOAP message
SOAP binding stylesIncludes many partsA single document
File integrationStrongly linkedWeakly coupled
Service parameters formatDelivered as discrete valuesUses basic XML format
Operation nameRetains the operation titleLoses the operation title

What is RPC?

Remote Procedure Call is a software interaction protocol that allows one program to demand services from another program on a network without needing to comprehend the network’s characteristics.

RPC is used to invoke other processes on distant computers, just as it would on a local system. A procedure call is also known as a callback function, or a subroutine call in some cases.

The client-server paradigm is used by RPC. The software that requests the service is known as the client, and the program that provides the service is known as the server.

An RPC, like a native procedure call, is a synchronous operation that requires the asking application to be halted until the remote process’s results are returned.

The usage of featherweight processes or threads that occupy the same network address, on the other hand, allows numerous RPCs to be done concurrently.

When program instructions that utilize the RPC framework are converted into an executable program, a stub that functions as a representation of the remote procedure code is included in the produced code.

When the program is executed and a procedure call is issued, the stub accepts the request and passes it on to a client runtime program on the local machine. When the client stub is initially activated, it connects a name server to get the protocol address of the server. 

What is a Document?

The SOAP Body is made up of one or more child components known as parts. There are no SOAP format constraints for the body; it contains whatever its sender and recipient agree on. This is known as Document style.

The message in the Document/Literal style may always be verified using any XML checker. The schema precisely defines the content of the SOAP body. The document style is set to be the default.

It specifies type information in the WSDL file, either inline or externally. Alternatively, it imports an XSD document that explains the structure (schema) of the complex data types transferred by those services functions that are loosely connected.

With web services in the form of documents, two business associates agree to exchange sophisticated business documents with a well-defined XML structure.

There is no explicit mapping among document/literal SOAP messages and scripting languages; all it specifies is that the SOAP message will comply with a specific XML Schema.

For example, if one party provides a document detailing a purchase order, the other party answers (immediately or later) with a document describing the buy order’s status.

There is no need to agree on such minor matters as operation titles and related parameters. The SOAP message’s payload is an XML document that may be verified against an XML schema. The style element on the SOAP binding defines the document.

Main Differences Between RPC and Document

  1. Remote procedure call (RPC) within JavaScript is a program that interposes communication, whereas the document style, also known as message-oriented style, is the default setting that is transmitted as a singular “document” in the component.
  2. The SOAP content in RPC style may include many parts, whereas in document style, the SOAP message is transmitted as a single document.
  3. The RPC is strongly linked, but the document style is weakly coupled.
  4. The parameters in the RPC style are delivered as discrete values, however in the document style, the client transmits the service parameters in basic XML format.
  5. The RPC/literal style retains the operation title in the SOAP message, whereas the Document/Literal style does not.


To transform a WSDL binding to a SOAP message body, two communication style models are employed. They are as follows: RPC and Document The format of the SOAP file body may comprise both the operation name and the array of method arguments when using an RPC style model.

The RPC style paradigm gives the XML instance in the text body a specified structure. While RPC is simple to grasp, it is closely connected, and we are unable to validate any SOAP messages.

The advantage of adopting a Document style model, however, is that you may format the SOAP body whatever you like as long as the information of the SOAP body text is any generic XML instance and SOAP messages can be validated against a predetermined schema. Although Document style is a little difficult to grasp.


  1. http://www.hjp.at/doc/rfc/rfc1831.html
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/1382853/
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