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# Mathematics > Classical Analysis and ODEs

# Title: On universally optimal lattice phase transitions and energy minimizers of completely monotone potentials

(Submitted on 17 Oct 2021)

Abstract: We consider the minimizing problem for energy functionals with two types of competing particles and completely monotone potential on a lattice. We prove that the minima of sum of two completely monotone functions among lattices is located exactly on a special curve which is part of the boundary of the fundamental region. We also establish a universal result for square lattice being the optimal in certain interval, which is surprising. Our result establishes the hexagonal-rhombic-square-rectangular transition lattice shapes in many physical and biological system (such as Bose-Einstein condensates and two-component Ginzburg-Landau systems). It turns out, our results also apply to locating the minimizers of sum of two Eisenstein series, which is new in number theory.

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