Difference Between SMTP and POP (With Table)

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The term ‘email protocol’ stands for a standard way to exchange information between email service providers (like Outlook, Gmail, etc) and email clients (like Apple Mail, Thunderbird) and vice versa. Various email protocols provide different functions like transporting emails and sending emails. SMTP and POP are also email protocols.

SMTP vs POP

The difference between SMTP vs POP is that while SMTP protocol is used for transporting mail, POP is used for accessing mail by the recipient. SMTP acts as a message transfer agent whereas POP acts as a message access agent.

The full form of SMTP is Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is an email protocol used to send mail to any person on the Internet. It is used twice while sending a mail:

  1. Between the sender(client) and the client’s mail server
  2. Between the client’s and receiver’s mail server

The full form of POP is Post Office Protocol. Its main use is to retrieve emails from the receiver’s mail server. It is used between the receiver and its mail server. Use of this protocol allows the receiver to open the mail even in the offline mode.

Comparison Table Between SMTP and POP

Parameters of ComparisonSMTPPOP
DefinitionIt is a protocol that sends email across networks based on MTAs to transfer the mail to the right computer.It’s work is like a post office clerk, it receives and stores mails.
UseIt is used to send messages.It is used to access messages.
Ports it works onIt works on Port 25.It works on Port 110
Number of times it is impliedTwice(Between the sender(client) and the client’s mail server; and  the client’s and receiver’s mail server)  Once( Between the receiver and its mail server)
Another nameIt is also known as PUSH protocol.It is also known as PULL Protocol

What is SMTP?

Simple mail transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a very reliable protocol for transferring emails in bulk on the internet. From the eighties, it has successfully transferred mails. It has, hence become the standard for sending out mails worldwide.

The transfer of mail between Server MTA and Client MTA(Mail Transfer Agent) takes place in three steps: establishment of connection(between server MTA and client), transfer of mail (to the various recipients), and termination of connection by the client(on the successful transfer of messages).

However, the use of this protocol is not free from issues. Spam mail is a major issue. It floods the recipient’s mail with a lot of useless content. Moreover, various computer viruses also get transferred alongside. Security concern is another noteworthy issue with SMTP. Various ways had been found to solve the issue but it wasn’t of much help.

This server is used by companies for marketing via mail and automatic transactional emails such as password change, purchase confirmation, etc.

What is POP?

Post Office Protocol is a standard way to access mails on our computers and use our mailboxes as per our convenience. It is the incoming server. POP3 which uses port 110 , is the latest version of POP.

After SMTP has successfully delivered the mail to server MTA( Message Transfer Agent) , POP protocol pulls it from the last position.  To open mails from client MAA( Message Access Agent), username and password is needed to establish connection. Once it is established, mails can be retrieved.

All emails get downloaded from the server, and remain accessible even when offline. Messages get stored on the computer of the user, removing them from the email server.

This protocol works on two modes: keep and delete mode. The first mode is used when the user is using someone else’s compute. Emails remain there for later use on his permanent computer. The second mode is used while working on his permanent computer. Mails get deleted from the mailbox and is saved on his computer for later use.

It was first made to access(in the eighties) and delete mails in places where internet was not accessible smoothly. When the user gets online, the messages get delivered.

Main Differences Between SMTP and POP

  1. SMTP acts as a Message Transfer Agent to transfer emails to the right computer server. On the other hand, POP acts as a Message Access Agent for accessing mails.
  2. SMTP is used on Port 25 whereas POP is used on Port 110.
  3. SMTP is a Push Protocol whereas POP is a Pull protocol to pull messages from the receiver’s server.
  4. SMTP is the Outgoing server which ensures that messages reach the right destination. On the other hand, POP is the incoming server .
  5. SMTP is implied twice. It transfers the message to the receiver’s mail box present on its server. POP is implied once to retrieve mails from the receiver’s server on its computer.

Conclusion

On comparing the two internet protocols, it has become clear that their work resembles that of a postman.

Just as the sender puts the postcard in the mailbox which gets picked up by the postman to deliver it to the right locality, SMTP delivers the email to the right server (receiver’s). Though, it is a reliable protocol used for sending emails in bulk, it faces a number of issues. Various codes are used by it for easy identification. This server is used for email marketing.

Just as the postman of the receiver’s locality, delivers the postcard to his address, POP allows the receiver’s computer to access its emails. Once downloaded, it allows users to access their emails, even when they are offline. Messages get stored on our computers and allow us to save space on our web server.

Thus, SMTP and POP are two protocols responsible for the smooth flow of emails on the internet. For setting up a mail client, configuration of both SMTP and POP are essential.

References

https://www2.rivier.edu/faculty/vriabov/Information-Security-SMTP_c60_p01-23.pdf

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/631025/

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