Sugar in the DNA vs RNA: Difference and Comparison

Each cell has RNA or DNA. These contain information about living beings, and genetic materials are carried by DNA.

And the study shows that genes are transferred from parents to their offspring that the DNA carries. As for DNA and RNA, they are a nucleotide.

And they are composed of nucleic acid, phosphate, and sugar. However, they have different sugar from each other. 

Key Takeaways

  1. DNA contains deoxyribose sugar, while RNA contains ribose sugar.
  2. Deoxyribose lacks an oxygen atom, making DNA more stable than RNA.
  3. RNA’s ribose sugar, with its additional oxygen atom, makes it more prone to hydrolysis and less stable.

Sugar in the DNA vs RNA

The difference between sugar in DNA and RNA is that DNA is composed of deoxyribose sugar, while RNA has ribose sugar. Secondly, DNA has lesser hydroxyl atoms than RNA. Thirdly, The sugar in DNA is also called 2-deoxyribose and deoxyribose.  Meanwhile, The sugar in RNA is called D-ribose. Fourthly, deoxyribose in DNA was found in 1929, while ribose in RNA was found in 1891. Lastly, thymine is chemically linked to deoxyribose in DNA. Meanwhile, nucleobase uracil is chemically linked to ribose in RNA. 

Sugar in the DNA vs RNA

DNA is composed of nucleotides, and one of the parts of DNA is deoxyribose sugar. The sugar part is general in both DNA and RNA.

However, it has different sugar types with fewer hydroxyl group atoms. Deoxyribose sugar was founded in 1929. Additionally, thymine is chemically linked o deoxyribose in DNA. 

RNA is also composed of nucleotides, and ribose sugar is one of the parts of RNA. The sugar part is general in both DNA and RNA.

However, it has different types of sugar with more atoms of hydroxyl groups. And ribose sugar was founded in 1891. Additionally, nucleobase uracil is chemically linked to ribose in RNA. 

Comparison Table

Parameters of comparisonSugar in the DNASugar in the RNA
SugarDNA is composed of deoxyribose sugar.RNA has ribose sugar. 
Hydroxyl atomsDNA has lesser hydroxyl atoms than RNA. RNA has more hydroxyl atoms.
Other names The sugar in DNA is also called 2-deoxyribose and dideoxyribose.The sugar in RNA is called D-ribose. 
FoundDeoxyribose in DNA was founded in 1929.Ribose in RNA was founded in 1891. 
Nitrogenous baseThymine is chemically linked to deoxyribose in DNA.Nucleobase uracil is chemically linked to ribose in RNA. 

What is Sugar in the DNA? 

DNA is an abbreviation of Deoxyribonucleic acid. It is the material that contains genetic information and replicates itself.

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All genetic information is contained in the DNA of an organism. And it has two strands arranged in helix strands. Compared to RNA, it is much longer. 

When a cell undergoes cell division or replication, the DNA also divides in this process. 

As for the sugar in DNA, it has deoxyribose. The deoxyribose has one less hydroxyl group than RNA’s ribose. 

Coming to the bases, it has adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. And the pairs are as follows adenine and thymine pair and cytosine and guanine pair. 

But, One less hydroxyl group in the sugar of DNA makes it more stable than RNA. 

The sugar part is similar in both DNA and RNA. However, it has different sugar types with fewer hydroxyl group atoms. And deoxyribose sugar was founded in 1929.

Additionally, thymine is chemically linked o deoxyribose in DNA 

Sugar is similar in DNA and RNA. It has reoccurring nucleotide units. And it has nucleic acid, phosphate, and sugar. 

It was discovered by Phoebus Levene in 1929. And it is also called 2-deoxyribose and deoxyribose. Additionally, it is also equivalent to monosaccharides. 

What is Sugar in RNA? 

RNA is an abbreviation of Ribonucleic acid. It is the material that is used to convert the genetic information contained in DNA.

Then finally, its format is used to build proteins and then moves it to ribosomal protein factories.  

As for the sugar in RNA, it has ribose. The ribose has one more hydroxyl group than DNA’s ribose. 

Coming to the bases, it shares adenine, guanine, and cytosine with DNA. However, it contains uracil rather than thymine. And the pairs are as follows adenine and uracil pair and cytosine and guanine pair. 

But, One more hydroxyl group in the sugar of RNA makes it more unstable than DNA. 

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The sugar part is general in both DNA and RNA. However, it has different types of sugar with more atoms of hydroxyl groups. And ribose sugar was founded in 1891.

Additionally, uracil is chemically linked to ribose in RNA. 

Sugar is similar in DNA and RNA. It has reoccurring nucleotide units. And it has nucleic acid, phosphate, and sugar. 

It was discovered by Emil Fisher in 1891. And it is also called D-ribose. Additionally, it is also equivalent to monosaccharides. 

Ribose is required in the process of transcription. Additionally, it is required for ATP and NADH. 

Main Differences Between Sugar in the DNA and RNA

DNA and RNA are the materials that contain all the necessary information about the living being. Thus, DNA or RNA is also divided during cell division or replication. DNA or RNA is studied extensively to keep and pass on genetic information. Hence, a lot of studies are going on with that. DNA passes on genetic materials from the parents to their offspring. 

  1. DNA is composed of deoxyribose sugar, while RNA has ribose sugar. 
  2. DNA has lesser hydroxyl atoms than RNA. While Hydroxyl atoms in RNA are more than in DNA.
  3. The sugar in DNA is also called 2-deoxyribose and di-deoxyribose.  Meanwhile, The sugar in RNA is called D-ribose. 
  4. Deoxyribose in DNA was found in 1929, while ribose in RNA was found in 1891. 
  5. Thymine is chemically linked to deoxyribose in DNA. Meanwhile, nucleobase uracil is chemically linked to ribose in RNA. 
References
  1. https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2012/cp/c2cp41987d
  2. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ja963641w 

Last Updated : 11 June, 2023

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9 thoughts on “Sugar in the DNA vs RNA: Difference and Comparison”

  1. The explanation of deoxyribose and ribose sugars, their histories, and roles in DNA and RNA is quite illuminating.

    Reply
  2. The article provides a highly intellectual and in-depth analysis of the complexities of DNA and RNA sugars and their implications.

    Reply
  3. The explanation about DNA and RNA structure, and the differences between their sugars is very clear and easy to comprehend.

    Reply

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