Difference Between Surplus and Deficit

Every country is finding stability. Either it’s population-wise or economic status.

Surplus vs Deficit

The main difference between surplus and Deficit is that surplus is the quantity or the number of resources that exceeds the utilised position. In contrast to that, the Deficit is a condition where a required resource like money is less than needed. Hence the expense exceeds revenues.

Surplus vs Deficit

Surplus as the term means in excess. So in the case of the economy, the surplus is the number of resources or assets that exceeds the occupied place.

A deficit is a situation where needed resources are less than the requirement. Like money, it’s a deficit when it doesn’t meet requirements.

Comparison Table Between Surplus and Deficit

Parameters of ComparisonSurplusDeficit
DefinitionSurplus means something in excess. Here when resources exceed the need.Deficit means the resources that are required are less corresponding to the need.
FlowIn budget surplus, the inward flow doesn’t fall short of outflow.In deficit, it falls short of outflow.
ExpenditureThe government expenditure is high in case of surplus.The government expenditure is low in case of deficit.
TypesSome major example can include economic and budget surplus.Major examples are budget and trade deficits.
Effect on TaxDuring a surplus budget, tax reduction may happen.In deficit, taxes might rise.

What is Surplus?

The government takes the necessary steps to find an equilibrium state. Meaning the country will be in a stable state.

A surplus budget is a type of budget where the government revenue is more than their expenditure, due to which there lies a surplus in the budget. It can point to various host of different items like income, profits, goods, capital, etc.

A Surplus is responsible for a market disequilibrium in the demand and supply portion. The imbalance depicts a picture of the inefficient flow of products across the market.

Consumer surplus and producer surplus are to main types of economic surplus. Consumer surplus occurs when the price for an item is less than the highest price a consumer would pay.

What is Deficit?

In fiscal terms, a deficit appears when expenses are exceeding revenues, imports exceeding exports, or even liabilities accelerating more than the assets. Or in simple terms, the Deficit is the reverse of surplus.

Not every time the Deficit occurs automatically. Sometimes the government also makes it deliberately stimulate an economy during the recession.

There are two major types of government deficit. The first one is the Budget deficit, and the second one is the Trade deficit.

On the other hand, a Trade deficit exists in trading systems. When the value of a nation’s import exceeds the value of its exports.

Main Differences Between Surplus and Deficit

  1. The term surplus means that the revenue generated is more than the expenditure, while the Deficit means that the expenditure is more than the revenue collected.
  2. The types of economic Surplus are consumer surplus and producer surplus, while types of Deficit are a Trade deficit and budget deficit.
  3. In the case of surplus, the government spends more, while in the case of Deficit, the government spends less.
  4. Reduction in taxes is possible in the case of Surplus, while no reduction of taxes rather rises can be observed in Deficit.
  5. In Surplus, the inward flow doesn’t fall short of outflow, while the reverse appears in the case of Deficit.
Difference Between Surplus and Deficit


Surplus and Deficit are two sides of a coin. What is in the hands is how you manage things.

Surplus, on the one hand, can be implemented deliberately, and so the Deficit. It’s important to realise the need and the implementation of both of the terms to run a safe and secure economy.


  1. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=TS98mJVaxqIC&oi=fnd&pg=PR11&dq=surplus&ots=hQj71tQ4gR&sig=OeizRMAp-qSBwnSXCc5s3tQPT5E
  2. https://www.jstor.org/stable/26057943
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