Difference Between Wolf and Jackal (With Table)

Wolves and jackals both belong to Genus Canis. A lot of people do not really know the difference between these two animals and usually use their names in the same breath. While both these animals belong to the same genus, they are very distinguishable.

Wolf vs Jackal

The difference between a wolf and a jackal is that wolves are social animals, they live and hunt in packs while jackals are loners and usually hunt alone. They can however, form pairs. There are two major species of wolves, Canis Simensis and Canis Lupus while jackals can be divided into three major species, Lupulella mesomomelas, Lupulella adustus, and Canis aureus.

Wolves are the largest members in the canidae family and are large-sized animals. Wolves are mainly carnivorous, however, they eat plants only when needed or incase they are ill. They can be seen hunting throughout the day. Wolves are found in most parts of the world, including the extremely cold tundras.

Jackals on the other hand also belong to the canidae family, but they are medium sized animals. They are opportunist omnivores, i.e. they try to eat meat as much as possible but are also very comfortable with plants. They can also scavenge if need be. Jackals can be seen hunting at dawn and dusk. They are usually found in Africa and Asia.

Comparison Table Between Wolf and Jackal

ParametersWolfJackal
GenusCanisCanis
ClassMammaliaMammalia
OrderCarnivoraCarnivora
SizeLarge SizedMedium Sized
Types SpeciesWolves can be divided into two major speciesJackals can be divided into three major species
Size of PacksIn most cases, size of a pack ranges between four to nine.Jackals are loners. They usually live and hunt alone. However, they can also form pairs 
International Union for Conservation of Nature ListLeast ConcernLeast Concern
Structure of a packWolf packs follow a strict hierarchyThere is no hierarchical structure in Jackals
MatingWolves are monogamous, usually mating for lifeJackals are monogamous
Gestation Period62 to 75 days60 to 63 days
Size of a litter5 to 6 pups3 to 8 pups
SpeedThe average speed of a wolf is 55 kmph to 70 kmphThe average speed of a jackal is 20 kmph
PopulationAs of 2003, the wolf population is estimated to be 300,000There isn’t much data on jackal population, but it is estimated that there are about 97,000 t0 117,000 jackals
Most populated inAlaska, Canada, and RussiaAfrica and Asia
PredatorsHumansLeopards, Hyenas and Eagles
Life SpanUp to 10 years8 to 9 years in the wild
WeightA male wolf’s weight ranges from 30 kg to 80 kg, while a female wolf’s weight ranges from 23 kg to 55kgJackals’ weight ranges from 5.4 kg to 14 kg.

What is a Wolf?

A wolf is a large-sized carnivorous animal that belongs to the Canidae family. Wolves are believed to be native to Eurasia and North America. Today, over the years we can find wolves in almost all continents. We can even find wolves in extremely cold conditions, these wolves are usually called polar wolves or arctic wolves.

The two major species that wolves can be divided into are Canis Simensis and Canis Lupus. Canis Simensis is usually known as the Ethiopian Wolf, which is found in the mountains of Ethiopia, whereas Canis Lupus which is usually known as the Gray Wolf is found in most parts of the world. There are a minimum of 40 subspecies within Canis Lupus.

 Wolves have dense, fluffy winter fur, however, this fur is usually shed in autumn. They also are extremely social animals and live in packs. A wolf pack has an extremely strict hierarchy, with the alpha male sitting at the top. The breeding rights are also exclusively reserved for the alpha male and female. They can also interbreed with domestic dogs and one can see a hybrid between a dog and a wolf.

Wolves aren’t fussy eaters, they usually eat small or medium-sized animals. They can also eat plants and berries if need be. Also, cannibalism is not uncommon when there is an acute scarcity of food. Wolves can also hunt at any given time in a day.

Wolves are most populated in Alaska, Canada, and Russia.

What is a Jackal?

Jackals, also like the wolves belong to the family of Canidae. Jackals can be divided into three species Lupulella mesomomelas, Lupulella adustus, and Canis aureus. Lupulella mesomomelas is known as a black-backed jackal, lupulella adustus is known as the side stripped jackal, and Canis aureus is known as the Golden jackal.

Jackals do not live in packs, rather they are loners or they form pairs. Jackals are also monogamous and mate for life. They have no hierarchical structure. Also, it is very difficult to see a jackal and a dog hybrid as they do not interbreed.

Jackals are not fussy eaters. They eat small animals and reptiles. They can also eat plants and scavenge on dead carcasses. You might even see a jackal scavenging through a trash bin.

The most populated areas with jackals are in Africa and Asia

Main Differences Between Wolf and Jackal

  1. Wolves are large-sized animals, whereas jackals are medium-sized.
  2. Wolves can be dived into two species, whereas jackals can be divided into three species.
  3. Wolves live in packs with a strict hierarchy while jackals live alone or in pairs.
  4. As the wolves are large-sized animals while jackals are medium-sized, wolves weigh a lot more than jackals.
  5. Wolves can interbreed with dogs, while jackals usually don’t.
  6. While wolves are active throughout the day, jackals are crepuscular, i.e. they are diurnal and nocturnal
  7. While wolves are mostly carnivorous and will eat plants only when need be, jackals are opportunist omnivores. They can also scavenge for dead meat and can also search for food in trash bins.
  8. Jackals have a lot of predators within the jungle, like leopards and hyenas while wolves are usually hunted only by humans.
  9. Wolves have a longer gestation period than jackals and the litter size is almost the same.

Conclusion

In conclusion, we can see that wolves in general, are more powerful than jackals. They are larger in size and have more strength. Wolves are also social animals living in packs while jackals usually prefer to be alone. Both these animals are on the least concerned list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In fact, both these animals have an increasing population.

References

https://academic.oup.com/biolinnean/article-abstract/45/4/315/2654345

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13364-015-0241-1

x
2D vs 3D