Difference Between YTM and IRR

After a certain time of earning money becomes a point when everyone wants to invest in various policies to give advantages and preserve their hard-earned money safely. For a beginner to understand these complex investment strategies, it can be a hassle. The internal rate of return and yield to maturity are two terms that are widely used in the world of finance.


The main difference between YTM and IRR is that Yield To Maturity is required in bond analysis to decide the final(relative) value of bond investments. At the same time, the Internal Rate Of Return is used in reviewing the relative value of projects. These are two crucial terms that every investor must be aware of.


The yield to maturity or YTM is used to evaluate bond features that include time to maturity, Current Coupon interest rates, early redemption prices, and the frequency of interest payments. And to calculate the item bond value table is used, which is also known as the bond yields table.

The internal rate of return or IR is used to decide whether a project should be recommended or rejected by the corporate finance departments. Suppose the internal return rate estimate exceeds the cost of capital needs. In that case, the senior official holds power to reject the project no matter the IRR falls Lo on their financial objectives.

Comparison Table Between YTM and IRR

Parameters of ComparisonYTMIRR
Full-FormYTM is an abbreviated form of Yield To Maturity.IRR is an abbreviated form of Internal Rate of Return.
UsesYield To Maturity is used for evaluating Bond Features.Internal Rate of Return is used to estimate the outcomes of a project or investment financially.
CalculationYTM can be calculated using spreadsheet software, or a bond yield table can be used.IRR  can be calculated using the given formula on programmable and online calculators.
BenefitIt helps the investors in comparing between different securities. The IRR method is more precise than accounting.
FormulaYTM = {[C+ (FV-PV/t)]/{(FV+PV)/2}IRR = {Cash Flows/[(1+r)^i]} – Initial Investment

What is YTM?

YTM expands to yield to maturity. It is a suitable means to evaluate bond features and is very widely used. These features include a wide range of departments like early redemption prices, frequency of interest payments, time to maturity, and even current coupon interest rates. To calculate yield to maturity, one requires the value of interest or coupon payment, present value of security, face value of security, and years security took to reach maturity. 

There is a significant advantage of building an early maturity redemption. The reason is that bonds are usually government debt instruments or corporate debt instruments. So the issuers of bonds lean towards building an early maturity redemption option in order to redeem them earlier than the maturity time. This helps them in saving the cost required in making interest payments. 

The way of calculating yield to maturity is quite an easy one. Calculations of ITM estimates can be done by using the bond value table, which is also very commonly known as the bond yield table. A lot of new options for this calculation can be spreadsheet software or an online and programmable calculator. The primary importance of YTM is its ability to show comparisons among different securities and returns that investors expect.

What is IRR?

The IRR or internal rate of return is renowned among corporations and investors to evaluate projects financial outcomes or the investments of an organization. A corporation only decides to carry on with a project when the internal rate of return is meeting the capital cost of a corporation or, in any case, is exceeding it. The calculation of the internal rate of return is an easy one and requires values of cash flow, expected or current value, as well as the original beginning value.

If the internal rate of return, in any case, exceeds the assets or cash needed to fund the project and the cost of capital, the corporate finance departments make a decision of whether to recommend or reject a project. Further, it is the duty of senior management to decide whether to go forward with a project which is exceeding the estimated financial objectives. It is best for estimating and all returns of the project and varies widely used for this purpose.

There is a special rule for internal rate of return, which is as follows – Higher a project’s internal rate of return (then the minimum rate of return), which refers to the cost of capital, more are the chances that it will be profitable to pursue the investment or project.

Main Differences Between YTM and IRR

  1. YTM refers to Yield To Maturity, while IRR refers to Internal Rate of Return.
  2. Yield To Maturity is used for evaluating Bond Features, whereas Internal Rate of Return helps assess the financial outcomes of a project or investment.
  3. A benefit of YTM is that it helps the investors in comparing between different securities and the advantage of the IRR method is that it is more precise than accounting.
  4. Formula to calculate YTM — YTM = {[C+ (FV-PV/t)]/{(FV+PV)/2} while the formula for calculating IRR is — IRR = {Cash Flows/[(1+r)^i]} – Initial Investment
  5. YTM is calculated using spreadsheet software, or a bond yield table can be used. At the same time, IRR can be quickly evaluated with the help of using the given formula on programmable and online calculators.


There is much usefulness and importance of Yield to Maturity and Internal Rate of Return. These strategies are widely in use by investors of big corporations as well as by small issuers. There are certain disadvantages to them too. For instance, IRR is not proven to succeed in identifying investment’s variable size of the opposing project. It even fails in providing appropriate dollar profitability. Nevertheless, the jobs at which YTM and IRR are good are no less than wonders. 


  1. https://search.proquest.com/openview/74104a40bb8800da1cf4d6dee1f6d0b3/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=51908
  2. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3805719
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