Difference Between Creatine and Creatinine (With Table)

Proteins are considered as one of the most important nutrients, and it is the building blocks for our tissues and act as a fuel for our body. Proteins are like fuel stores or houses from where our body takes it whenever it needs. Proteins are usually made up of amino acids, which are joined together by peptide bonds. Creatine and Creatinine are the proteins that are present in blood in the body. Both of these proteins are obtained by taking meats or non-vegetarian foods. 

Creatine vs Creatinine

The difference between Creatine and Creatinine is that Creatine is found naturally in the brain and muscle tissues, whereas Creatinine is formed as a result when there is a breakdown of creatine in the muscles and excreted via urine. So Creatinine is a by-product of Creatine. Creatine is soluble in water, whereas Creatinine solubility in water is very less in comparison to Creatine.

Creatine is an amino acid, an organic compound that is found in all vertebrates. Creatine is known as the energy currency of cells as it does the process of recycling where it converts adenosine diphosphate(ADP) to adenosine triphosphate(ATP) by donating phosphate. Creatine is used as a dietary supplement to enhance the performance of muscle in the body, especially in sports. According to research and studies, it was found that Creatine is largely stored in skeletal muscle of the body almost 95% and the other 5% in blood, brain, and other tissues.

Creatinine is a by-product of Creatine when it is released from muscles and proteins. Creatinine is released at a constant rate in our body. It is used to check the health of our kidneys as it is an important indicator. Creatinine is usually removed from our body via kidneys in the form of urine through the process of glomerular filtration. The concentration of Creatinine in blood and urine is used to measure GFR.

Comparison Table Between Creatine and Creatinine

比較のパラメータCreatineCreatinine
定義Creatine is an amino acid that is found naturally in muscles and the brain.Creatinine is a waste product of Creatine phosphate, which is removed in the form of urine.
方式Its formula is C4H9N3O2.Its formula is C4H7N3O.
構造Its structure is linear.It has a cyclic structure.
製造Creatine is mostly produced inside the liver and kidneys and then sent to muscles in the body.Creatinine is produced when there is a breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscles.
Solubility in H2OIt is highly soluble in water.It is less soluble compared to Creatine.

What is Creatine?

Creatine was first detected by Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1832 when he isolated it from water in skeletal muscles. Then, in 1928 it was found that creatine can be increased and found in larger amounts, and then creatine phosphate was discovered by the scientists. Creatine plays a crucial role in the metabolism of skeletal muscle in the body. Creatine is formed naturally in the body of vertebrates. 

Research shows that if carbohydrates are consumed, which has high glucose, then it will increase the formation of creatine in the muscles of our body. It was also used as a dietary supplement by sportsperson to increase their muscular strength. Almost 95% of creatine is stored in the muscles of our body and rest in other parts. Synthesis of creatine takes place inside the liver and kidneys.

Approximately 120 mmol/kg of dry muscle mass of creatine is stored in our body. But it can be increased to 160 mmol/kg with the help of supplements and diets. Creatine can also be derived synthetically from seafood and red meat. Creatine is used to treat several diseases like depression, brain disorders, heart diseases, neurological problems, etc. Creatine is lower in vegetarians in comparison to people who consume meats because creatine is produced basically by an omnivorous diet.

What is Creatinine?

Creatinine is a chemical product formed by breaking down creatine phosphate in muscles. The production of creatinine depends upon the muscle mass of a person, and it is released at a constant rate by the body. It is present in plasma and serum, and it is transported through the kidneys into the blood, filtered, and then excreted in the form of urine. The level of creatinine is higher in men than in women because men have more skeletal muscles than women.

Concentrations of creatinine in the blood are used to calculate the GFR, i.e., Glomerular Filtration Rate. GFR is used to measure the function of the kidney, and it is clinically important. If there is malfunctioning in the kidneys, then the level of creatinine will increase in the blood. So creatinine clearance (CrCl) is used to measure the concentrations of creatinine in blood and urine. 

Every day 1 to 2% of creatine produced in our body is converted to creatinine, and the process of conversion is irreversible and nonenzymatic. Eating a lot of protein can increase creatine which in turn will increase the creatinine excretion. If there is a low level of creatinine in the body, then it can cause malnutrition, muscle atrophy, debility, sedentary lifestyle, and multiple sclerosis.

Main Differences Between Creatine and Creatinine

  1. Creatine is an amino acid that is found naturally in muscles and the brain. Creatinine is a waste product of Creatine phosphate, which is removed in the form of urine.
  2.  The formula of Creatine is C4H9N3O2, and the molar mass is 131.13 g/mol. The formula for Creatinine is C4H7N3O, and the molar mass is 113.12 g/mol.
  3. The structure of Creatine is linear, which means its molecules are linear. Creatinine has a structure of heterocyclic.
  4. Creatine is produced in the liver, pancreas, and kidneys and then sent to the muscles of the body. Creatinine is produced when there is a breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscles, and it is transported via blood with the help of kidneys.
  5. Creatine is highly soluble in water. Creatinine is less soluble compared to Creatine and is 1 part per 1290mmg/ml at 20 degrees Celsius.

結論

Both Creatine and Creatinine are found in our blood in the body. Both are present in the state of equilibrium in humans. Both are achieved when there is a consumption of proteins. So in red meats and seafood, there is a greater level of both creatine and creatinine. 

People who eat or follow an omnivorous diet are likely to have more creatine and creatinine in their bodies in comparison to vegetarians. Creatine is produced with the help of L-arginine, glycine, and L-methionine amino acids, and Creatinine is produced when there is a breakdown of creatine phosphate in the muscles.

Creatine is an organic compound essential for our body and helps in the growth of muscles, generating tissues in the muscle, which leads to more energy. Creatinine, as such, does not perform any necessary function in our body. But it is very useful in checking the health of your kidneys if they are working properly or not.

参考文献

  1. https://journals.physiology.org/doi/abs/10.1152/physrev.2000.80.3.1107
  2. https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-abstract/105/4/428/4763461
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