Diferença entre pesquisa qualitativa e quantitativa (com tabela)

When you want to perform any kind of research, you will find that research can be done in two ways as explained and differentiated in this article.

Qualitative vs Quantitative Research

o difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research is that Qualitative research is used to collect ideas from people, how they feel, and think, while quantitative research is used to find the variables through logic, statistics, and mathematical method.

Qualitative data is in the verbal form, whereas quantitative data is in the numeric form, which is measurable.

Comparison Table Between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research

Parâmetros de comparaçãoPesquisa qualitativaPesquisa quantitativa
Objetivo / propósitoVisa explorar ideias subjacentes e formular teorias ou hipóteses posteriormenteVisa testar teorias e hipóteses em vez de explorá-las
AnáliseA análise é feita por meio de resumos, categorias e interpretaçõesA análise é feita por meio de análises matemáticas e estatísticas
ResultadoOs resultados são expressos em palavras simplesOs resultados são expressos por meio de tabelas, gráficos e números
Número de entrevistadosDepende apenas de alguns entrevistadosDepende de muitos entrevistados para criar
Natureza das PerguntasEmprega perguntas abertasEmprega questões fechadas ou de múltipla escolha
Terminologias ChaveSubjetividade, complexidade, contexto e compreensãoReplicabilidade, objetividade, medições e testes

O que é pesquisa qualitativa?

Qualitative research is the process of inquiring into social phenomena within their natural settings. It mainly seeks to understand the reason behind these social phenomena rather than the mere fact that they already exist. It borrows and relies heavily on the direct experiences of those affected.

Throughout this kind of research, only non-numeric data is collected. These only touches on the description of things rather than their actual sizes and numbers.

Preocupa-se principalmente com os símbolos, metáforas, características e definições em oposição aos dados reais. Todos estes formam a base para pesquisas futuras.

O que é pesquisa quantitativa?

Quantitative research is a concept in both the social and the natural sciences. It is the use of a systematic and empirical approach towards the investigation of the various phenomena. The investigation proper happens by use of the mathematical, computational, and statistical techniques. In all, it seeks to deliver more in-depth and comprehensible outcomes.

Ao contrário da abordagem qualitativa, os métodos quantitativos dão ênfase especial às medições objetivas de dados e fenômenos.

After acquiring the data, it analyzes the same via surveys, questionnaires, polls, or through manipulating the present statistical data further by the use of computational techniques. The end result in most cases is more precise and unambiguous.

Principais diferenças entre pesquisa qualitativa e pesquisa quantitativa

Terminologia Chave

These two forms of research differ with regard to the kinds of terms used throughout the entire exercise. The qualitative research uses terms like subjectivity, complexity, context, and understanding while the quantitative counterpart uses replicability, objectivity, measurements, and testing.

Natureza das Perguntas

The kinds of questions used to extract the data also differ significantly. In the case of qualitative research, the questions are for a large part open-ended i.e. they give almost no hint to the interviewee as regards what the answer might be.

O caso da pesquisa quantitativa é, entretanto, o oposto.

Número de entrevistados

Given its shallow scope, qualitative research relies on only a few respondents to generate sufficient amounts of data. The extra-wide scope of the quantitative research, however, demands that it takes testimonies from many respondents before a viable conclusion may be reached.

Resultado

Yet again, these two forms of researches differ with regard to the kinds of languages used to express the final outcomes. The qualitative research outcomes are expressible in plain words whereas those of the quantitative research is expressed in numbers and figures.

O primeiro é, portanto, mais fácil de interpretar do que o último.

Análise

To make meaning from these two kinds of research, different techniques are employed. The qualitative research employs the summaries, categories, and interpretations to do so.

As for quantitative research, the analysis is principally carried out through mathematical and statistical analysis. These two approaches are way quite different in scope and understand-ability.

Objetivo / propósito

On the whole, the overall purposes of these two forms of research also differ to a large part. The qualitative research basically aims at exploring underlying ideas and formulating theories or hypotheses later.

No entanto, isso é diferente da pesquisa quantitativa, que visa apenas testar teorias e hipóteses, em vez de explorá-las.

Perícia

Considering that qualitative research mainly wants or seeks to understand the underlying principles of a given subject matter, it requires not too much expertise. Anyone who bears a basic level of education can carry it.

A natureza complicada da pesquisa quantitativa, por outro lado, requer conhecimento profundo para ser realizada.

Aplicabilidade

Qualitative research is mainly applied in social sciences as it seeks only to understand the nature and the behaviors of the given population. Quantitative research, however, goes deeper. On account of this, it is applied in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.

Metodologia de Pesquisa

During the qualitative research process, there is two-way communication between the researcher himself and the objects or populations targeted. As such, there is hardly any room for ambiguity. The quantitative research, however, studies the object from a distance and without any input on its part.

Implicações de tempo

As explained beforehand, qualitative research is a bit shallow. As such, it is faster to implement and will hardly take that much time. The case is however completely different from the quantitative research.

Por ser complicado, requer muito tempo para conduzir e divulgar as descobertas.

Caráter Geral

All factors considered qualitative research is objective in nature. This means that no theory is formulated in advance. The whole purpose is to know an objective outcome. Its quantitative research counterpart is subjective though as the purpose is predetermined in advance.

Portanto, é mais provável que produza resultados tendenciosos.

Perguntas frequentes (FAQ) sobre pesquisa qualitativa e quantitativa

Quais são os 4 tipos de pesquisa qualitativa?

Os 4 tipos importantes de pesquisa qualitativa são,
Fenomenologia - É o estudo filosófico dos eventos que acontecem naturalmente. Podem ser fenômenos naturais ou experiências relacionadas às pessoas.
Etnografia - É o estudo científico do ser humano junto com seu ambiente social, cultura e costumes.
Teoria fundamentada - É o processo metodológico de desenvolvimento de teorias com base na coleta e análise sistemática de dados relevantes.
Estudo de caso - É um estudo baseado em pesquisa e análise de uma pessoa, evento, grupo, projeto ou situação.

O que é pesquisa qualitativa e quantitativa em sociologia?

A pesquisa qualitativa em sociologia é o estudo e análise de fatos teóricos sobre os seres humanos e seu entorno social e meio ambiente.

It is carried out on the basis of qualities or factors that cannot be expressed in numerical terms but can only be explained. For example, the study of beliefs, behaviors, and relationships can be termed as qualitative research.

Também é conhecido como pesquisa de campo, pois o processo requer inspeção direta, observação e interação.

Quantitative Research is based on the collection and study of numerical or quantifiable data about people or groups. It deals with things that can be measured and expressed in numerical terms. Aspects like gender, practices, professions, and opinions are a few examples of factors that are considered for quantitative studies.

Pesquisas de diferentes tipos, como pesquisas populacionais ou pesquisas de marketing, são os melhores exemplos de pesquisa quantitativa.

Qual é o propósito da pesquisa qualitativa em educação?

Qualitative research is extensively used in the field of education to improve and enhance the knowledge of various doctrines and branches of social sciences and philosophy. The research-based analysis helps institutes in training their students about the dynamic aspects of social sciences.

Qualitative research is also extensively used in the field of psychiatry and allied branches of medicine. It helps researchers in experimenting with new and advanced treatment modalities and therapeutic approaches.

Qualitative analysis also helps in the study of various phenomena related to nature, human behavior, and social customs. It also helps scientists and researchers in learning various facts about animals and wildlife. In short, the method of qualitative study plays a key role in various spheres of education.

Conclusão

Bem, agora acreditamos que você tem a visão de que precisa para realizar suas atividades de pesquisa com confiança e eficiência.

Agora depende de você fazer uso das informações que fornecemos para fazer um bom trabalho. Só podemos desejar a você tudo de melhor agora!

Referências

  1. https://ecommons.udayton.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=eda_fac_pub
  2. https://nepc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/Howe_Eisenhart_Stds_for_Qualitative_Research.pdf
  3. https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/quantitative