Difference Between Lysosome and Peroxisome (With Table)

One of the most common facts is that a cell is a key unit of life. Two different kinds of single-membrane chambers are found within the cell, namely, Lysosome and Peroxisome. While inside animals, only Lysosomes are found. On the other hand, Peroxisome is there in every eukaryote cells. The size of lysosomes is quite large, whereas the peroxisomes are much smaller in size. Lysosomes and Peroxisomes are both chambers of an enzyme.

Lysosome vs Peroxisome

The difference between Lysosome and Peroxisome is that lysosome comprises a range of degradative enzymes responsible for breaking down nearly every biological polymers present within the cell. On the other hand, Peroxisome comprises enzymes.

The enzymes found in the peroxisome are responsible for carrying out the oxidation reactions and also for the breaking down process of hydrogen peroxide.

Comparison Table Between Lysosome and Peroxisome

Parâmetro de ComparaçãoLisossomaPeroxisome
Key functionLysosomes’ main function is to ensure the breaking down of biological polymers, namely proteins and polysaccharides.The main function of Peroxisomes is to ensure the oxidization of organic compounds and also to ensure the breaking down of metabolic hydrogen peroxide.
ComposiçãoLysosomes are made up of enzymes that are degradative in nature.Peroxisomes are made up of enzymes that are oxidative in nature.
Responsável porLysosomes have the responsibility of ensuring the digestion process in a cell.Peroxisomes have the responsibility of ensuring the protection of a cell from metabolic hydrogen peroxide.
Encontrado emLysosomes are mainly present in animals.Peroxisomes are mainly present in every eukaryote.
DerivaçãoLysosomes originate from the Golgi apparatus or either from the endoplasmic reticulum.Peroxisomes originate mainly from the endoplasmic reticulum and are actually able to replicate on their own.
TamanhoLysosomes are big in size. Peroxisomes are comparatively smaller in size.
Generation of EnergyReactions being degradative in nature do not actually generate any energy.Reactions being oxidative in nature are capable of generating ATP energy.

What is Lysosome?

A membrane-enclosed organelle found within a cell is known as a Lysosome. A lysosome comprises enzymes that can degrade biological polymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. The lysosome is in the shape of a spherical vesicle, and it acts as a degradative system for both obsolete parts and biological polymers, which are found inside a cytoplasm.

The size of lysosomes is quite large; its size differs from 0.1 to 1.2 µm according to the digested materials. Unwanted components and biomolecules found inside the cytoplasm are engulfed by the hydrolytic enzymes present in the lysosomes to break them down. A Lysosome is formed amidst endocytosis. It consumes components from the outer layer of a cell. It is considered as a disposal system of waste of a cell. Except for degradation, lysosomes are also indulged in several other activities such as secretion, repair of the plasma membrane, ensuring energy metabolism, etc.

What is Peroxisome?

An organelle that is membrane-enclosed is known as Peroxisome. The peroxisome is present in every eukaryote, and it comprises enzymes capable of breaking down metabolic hydrogen peroxides. Although morphologically, both lysosomes and peroxisomes are the same; in comparison, peroxisomes are much smaller in size. The size of the diameter of the peroxisome is somewhere between 0.1 to 1.0 µm.

The function of catalyzing several biochemical pathways found in the cell is performed by enzymes present in peroxisomes. The peroxisome’s vital function is to conduct oxidation reactions; these reactions, in turn, generate hydrogen peroxide. As hydrogen peroxides are harmful to the cells, peroxisomes comprise enzymes known as catalases. These catalase decay hydrogen peroxide in water or consume it to oxidize some other organic compound.

Substances such as fatty, amino, uric acids are broken by the enzymes oxidative in nature present in the peroxisomes. By oxidization of fatty acids, metabolic energy is produced.

Main Differences Between Lysosome and Peroxisome

  1. Lysosomes conduct the process of breaking down biological polymers such as protein or polysaccharides. In contrast, Peroxisomes conduct the process of oxidization of organic compounds, and they also break down hydrogen peroxides, which are metabolic in nature.
  2. Lysosomes comprise of enzymes degradative in nature, whereas peroxisomes comprise of enzymes oxidative in nature.
  3. While lysosomes have the key function of ensuring digestion in the cell, the peroxisomes have the key function of protecting the cell from the hydrogen peroxide metabolic in nature.
  4. Lysosomes are only present in the body of animals. On the other hand, peroxisomes are present in every eukaryote.
  5. The lysosomes are originated from the Golgi apparatus, whereas peroxisomes are originated from the endoplasmic reticulum, and they have the ability to replicate on their own.
  6. The peroxisomes are small in size, whereas the size of the Lysosomes is bigger.
  7. The reactions which take place in Lysosomes being degradative in nature does not generate any energy. On the other hand, the reactions taking place in peroxisomes are oxidative in nature, and such reactions generate ATP energy.

Conclusão

Lysosome and peroxisome both are organelles, which comprise enzymes that are responsible for catalyzing many biochemical processes inside the cell. The main distinction between the two terms is the nature of the enzymes they comprise and their respective functions. Lysosomes comprise enzymes responsible for the degradation of biopolymers such as proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, and acids nucleic in nature. Peroxisomes comprise enzymes that are responsible for the oxidation of organic components, generating metabolic energy.

The structure of Lysosomes and Peroxisomes are somewhat similar, although they vary in size. Lysosomes are bigger in size in comparison to the size of peroxisomes. Their size depends upon the materials that they intake in their respective organelles. Lysosomes and Peroxisomes are both organelles that are enclosed by circumscribed by a single membrane. The presence of Lysosomes and peroxisomes are different, while Lysosomes are present only inside the body of animals. On the other hand, peroxisomes are present in almost every eukaryote. Origination of both the organelles are quite distinct, lysosomes originate from the Golgi apparatus, and peroxisomes originate from the endoplasmic reticulum.

Referências

  1. https://nyaspubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1969.tb43124.x
  2. https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1096/fasebj.14.10.1265
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