Diferencia entre investigación cualitativa y cuantitativa (con tabla)

When you want to perform any kind of research, you will find that research can be done in two ways as explained and differentiated in this article.

Qualitative vs Quantitative Research

los difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research es eso Qualitative research is used to collect ideas from people, how they feel, and think, while quantitative research is used to find the variables through logic, statistics, and mathematical method.

Qualitative data is in the verbal form, whereas quantitative data is in the numeric form, which is measurable.

Comparison Table Between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research

Parámetros de comparaciónInvestigación cualitativaInvestigación cuantitativa
Objetivo / propósitoTiene como objetivo explorar ideas subyacentes y formular teorías o hipótesis más tarde.Tiene como objetivo probar teorías e hipótesis en lugar de explorarlas.
AnálisisEl análisis se realiza mediante resúmenes, categorías e interpretaciones.El análisis se realiza mediante análisis matemático y estadístico
SalidaLos resultados se expresan en palabras sencillas.Los resultados se expresan mediante tablas, gráficos y números.
Numero de encuestadosSe basa solo en unos pocos encuestadosDepende de muchos encuestados para elaborar
Naturaleza de las preguntasEmplea preguntas abiertasEmplea preguntas cerradas o de opción múltiple
Terminologías claveSubjetividad, complejidad, contexto y comprensiónReplicabilidad, objetividad, mediciones y pruebas.

What is Qualitative Research?

Qualitative research is the process of inquiring into social phenomena within their natural settings. It mainly seeks to understand the reason behind these social phenomena rather than the mere fact that they already exist. It borrows and relies heavily on the direct experiences of those affected.

Throughout this kind of research, only non-numeric data is collected. These only touches on the description of things rather than their actual sizes and numbers.

Se ocupa principalmente de los símbolos, metáforas, características y definiciones en contraposición a los datos reales. Todos estos forman la base para futuras investigaciones.

¿Qué es la investigación cuantitativa?

Quantitative research is a concept in both the social and the natural sciences. It is the use of a systematic and empirical approach towards the investigation of the various phenomena. The investigation proper happens by use of the mathematical, computational, and statistical techniques. In all, it seeks to deliver more in-depth and comprehensible outcomes.

A diferencia del enfoque cualitativo, los métodos cuantitativos ponen especial énfasis en las mediciones objetivas de datos y fenómenos.

After acquiring the data, it analyzes the same via surveys, questionnaires, polls, or through manipulating the present statistical data further by the use of computational techniques. The end result in most cases is more precise and unambiguous.

Principales diferencias entre investigación cualitativa e investigación cuantitativa

Terminología clave

These two forms of research differ with regard to the kinds of terms used throughout the entire exercise. The qualitative research uses terms like subjectivity, complexity, context, and understanding while the quantitative counterpart uses replicability, objectivity, measurements, and testing.

Naturaleza de las preguntas

The kinds of questions used to extract the data also differ significantly. In the case of qualitative research, the questions are for a large part open-ended i.e. they give almost no hint to the interviewee as regards what the answer might be.

El caso de la investigación cuantitativa es, sin embargo, todo lo contrario.

Número de encuestados

Given its shallow scope, qualitative research relies on only a few respondents to generate sufficient amounts of data. The extra-wide scope of the quantitative research, however, demands that it takes testimonies from many respondents before a viable conclusion may be reached.

Salida

Yet again, these two forms of researches differ with regard to the kinds of languages used to express the final outcomes. The qualitative research outcomes are expressible in plain words whereas those of the quantitative research is expressed in numbers and figures.

Por tanto, el primero es más fácil de interpretar que el segundo.

Análisis

To make meaning from these two kinds of research, different techniques are employed. The qualitative research employs the summaries, categories, and interpretations to do so.

As for quantitative research, the analysis is principally carried out through mathematical and statistical analysis. These two approaches are way quite different in scope and understand-ability.

Objetivo / Propósito

On the whole, the overall purposes of these two forms of research also differ to a large part. The qualitative research basically aims at exploring underlying ideas and formulating theories or hypotheses later.

Sin embargo, esto es diferente de la investigación cuantitativa que solo apunta a probar teorías e hipótesis en lugar de explorarlas.

Pericia

Considering that qualitative research mainly wants or seeks to understand the underlying principles of a given subject matter, it requires not too much expertise. Anyone who bears a basic level of education can carry it.

La naturaleza complicada de la investigación cuantitativa, por otro lado, requiere una experiencia profunda para emprender.

Aplicabilidad

La investigación cualitativa se aplica principalmente en Ciencias Sociales as it seeks only to understand the nature and the behaviors of the given population. Quantitative research, however, goes deeper. On account of this, it is applied in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields.

Metodología de investigación

During the qualitative research process, there is two-way communication between the researcher himself and the objects or populations targeted. As such, there is hardly any room for ambiguity. The quantitative research, however, studies the object from a distance and without any input on its part.

Implicaciones de tiempo

As explained beforehand, qualitative research is a bit shallow. As such, it is faster to implement and will hardly take that much time. The case is however completely different from the quantitative research.

Al ser complicado, requiere mucho tiempo realizar y publicar los hallazgos.

Carácter general

All factors considered qualitative research is objective in nature. This means that no theory is formulated in advance. The whole purpose is to know an objective outcome. Its quantitative research counterpart is subjective though as the purpose is predetermined in advance.

Por tanto, es más probable que produzca resultados sesgados.

Preguntas frecuentes (FAQ) sobre la investigación cualitativa y cuantitativa

¿Cuáles son los 4 tipos de investigación cualitativa?

Los 4 tipos importantes de investigación cualitativa son,
Fenomenología - Es el estudio filosófico de eventos que suceden de forma natural. Pueden ser fenómenos naturales o experiencias relacionadas con las personas.
Etnografía - Es el estudio científico del ser humano junto con su entorno social, cultura y costumbres.
Teoría fundamentada - Es el proceso metodológico de desarrollo de teorías basadas en la recolección y análisis sistemático de datos relevantes.
Caso de estudio - Es un estudio y análisis basado en la investigación de una persona, evento, grupo, proyecto o situación.

¿Qué es la investigación cualitativa y cuantitativa en sociología?

Qualitative research in sociología is the study and analysis of theoretical facts about humans and their social surroundings and environment.

It is carried out on the basis of qualities or factors that cannot be expressed in numerical terms but can only be explained. For example, the study of beliefs, behaviors, and relationships can be termed as qualitative research.

También se conoce como investigación de campo ya que el proceso requiere inspección, observación e interacción.

Quantitative Research is based on the collection and study of numerical or quantifiable data about people or groups. It deals with things that can be measured and expressed in numerical terms. Aspects like gender, practices, professions, and opinions are a few examples of factors that are considered for quantitative studies.

Las encuestas de diferentes tipos, como las encuestas de población o las encuestas de marketing, son los mejores ejemplos de investigación cuantitativa.

¿Cuál es el propósito de la investigación cualitativa en educación?

Qualitative research is extensively used in the field of education to improve and enhance the knowledge of various doctrines and branches of social sciences and philosophy. The research-based analysis helps institutes in training their students about the dynamic aspects of social sciences.

Qualitative research is also extensively used in the field of psychiatry and allied branches of medicine. It helps researchers in experimenting with new and advanced treatment modalities and therapeutic approaches.

Qualitative analysis also helps in the study of various phenomena related to nature, human behavior, and social customs. It also helps scientists and researchers in learning various facts about animals and wildlife. In short, the method of qualitative study plays a key role in various spheres of education.

Conclusión

Bueno, ahora creemos que tiene la información que necesita para emprender sus actividades de investigación con confianza y eficiencia.

Ahora depende de usted hacer uso de la información que le hemos proporcionado para hacer un buen trabajo. ¡Solo podemos desearle todo lo mejor ahora!

Referencias

  1. https://ecommons.udayton.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1121&context=eda_fac_pub
  2. https://nepc.colorado.edu/sites/default/files/Howe_Eisenhart_Stds_for_Qualitative_Research.pdf
  3. https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/quantitative