Difference Between Cyber-Physical Systems and IoT

What are Cyber-physical systems (CPS)?

The Cyber-physical system is a platform that helps to increase reliability, advancement and exposure to potential areas of technology. It is a system which physically processes the integrated computing elements.


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The CPS is not necessarily dependent on the internet, which forms one of the main differences. It is like a controlled critical infrastructure which is fully computerized.

CPS tends to develop the networking process in the field where cyber and physical systems are needed. Algorithms help to control these computer systems.

CPS works with the coordinating system of physical and cyber elements. The physical space sends the information with the help of sensors and cyberspace analyses to make decisions.

Based on the decisions sent by cyberspace, physical space shows some action.

This whole system doesn’t need the internet at its core. Some examples of CPS include industrial control systems, automobile systems, robotic systems, etc.

CPS represents a system which shows high-quality relations between physical and computational elements. The Computational part makes cyberspace.

Communications are between computers and physical space. The physical space consists of sensors to collect data. Cyberspace analyses the data to take decisions which will be implemented by again the physical space.

What is IoT?

The Internet of Things is a network over the internet that helps us to connect all the technologies. Previously, devices like laptops, desktops, phones and tablets helped to access the internet, but now it is changing.

Currently, we can connect all kinds of technological devices through the Internet of Things. It forms a network of interrelated devices. These devices are connected through and to the internet.

For example, nowadays, Smart homes with appliances like washing machines, coffee machines, AC, and security alarms are interconnected. They share common data among themselves and with us over a mobile application.

The General and Sensing devices form the information collected from the surroundings and transfer it to the cloud, which further processes and leads to the actions. The Process includes many smaller units of events, forming a complex chain of events.

In simple words, a scenario where we can control our coffee machine or switch off our AC or any other appliances with the help of some apps on our Phones gives a typical example of IoT. An internet network which connects devices.

Difference Between Cyber-Physical Systems and IoT

  1. CPS is a system where the cyber and physical world connects with the help of sensors and actuators. IoT is a system which forms a network of devices connected among themselves.
  2. CPS effortlessly integrated physical processes, networking and computation. IoT connects objects with unique identities to the internet and with each other.
  3. Humans can or cannot need intervention and assistance in CPS. IoT is purely automatic and doesn’t need any human assistance.
  4. CPS is about connecting physical space devices to cyberspace. IoT is all about the internet and Sensor automation.
  5. CPS is based on computers and computation. IoT is a network based on the Internet.

Comparison Between Cyber-physical Systems and IoT

Parameters of ComparisonCyber-physical SystemIoT
DefinitionIt is a system of co-engineered interactions of physical and computational elements.It is a System of Interrelated devices connected through the Internet to transfer and receive data.
ExampleMedical instruments, Robotic equipment, Vehicles, etc.A Smart Home, Smart Cars Farming, Smart City, etc.
InternetNot NecessaryPrimary requirement
Basic ElementsCyberspace and Physical spaceTechnological devices and the Internet
FeaturesAutomation and Human intervention are present.Automation- No Human intervention

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  1. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-66222-6_3
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9368793/
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