Difference Between Recession and Depression

Every country and nation has its growth calculator. It helps them to look for all the purchases and other important matters regarding the market. The economy of a country is always dependent on its market value. The economy can fall or it can rise. In a particular region if the economy is declined then it represents the recession of that particular region. The term recession and depression in the economy is a microeconomy term.

The economic cycle always runs smoothly, and the economy must not stop whether it is falling or rising above. The economy of a particular region is all connected to other regions. The world is connected through economic activity. If a region’s economy is declined it will affect the economy of that region and others as well. The economy can be in recession or depression.

Recession vs Depression

The main difference between recession and depression is that the recession causes a specific decline in the activity which is followed by the economic procedures. Sometimes the recession can last for many months or maybe It can last for a year. Recessions can happen in a gap or maybe it can happen with a great peak difference. But depression can be for many years. It can be more dangerous and more remarkable than a recession. When the GDP falls the economic stage of a region falls and it moves forward to depression.

Recession vs Depression

Recession means, low on economic activities in a particular region with a particularly low rate. When there is a broad decrease in spending, a recession occurs an adverse demand shock. A recession can happen because of many reasons. The main reason for the recession is the financial cause. The recession can cause a huge difference in the market. The market can face a huge economic downfall.

Depression lasts for a longer period. It can for years, and it also happens when the economy falls very down and the markets rate goes low. The demand is very high but the supply is very low to provide goods and services to the customers. Depression in the economy has been in recent years for several regions in the world.

Comparison Table Between Recession and Depression

Parameters of ComparisonRecessionDepression
Definition A recession is defined as a major drop in economic output throughout the economy, it lasts for a few months.Depression is the more severe form of recession. The big difference is it can last for many years.
Causes High-interest rates can cause people to lose their confidence. Inflation causes an increase in money supply in the market. Crashing the market causes a decrease in the trade of goods. Decreasing orders, control of prices, and wages also change.
EffectsEffects the monetary, fiscal changes, the credit availability also gets harder, the interests rate also falls, high rate of inflation.Fall of economy, political changes, social changes, and unemployment increases. During political changes, the aspects of political change.
Indicators The GDP and the manufacturing of the region fall due to a low economy and then it indicates recession.Producer price index, unemployment also increase as people do not find jobs, the trade balance also gets disturbed.
PeriodThe great recession period was December 2007- June 2009. This was the only recession period that occurred in early 2000. The great depression period was from 1929-1939, it caused a drastic change in society. The world remembers.

What is Recession?

A recession is a financial phrase that denotes a considerable drop in overall economic growth in a specific area. It was previously defined as two-quarters of economic contraction, as measured by GDP and monthly signs such as an increase in unemployment. Earlier the NBER declares recession as low of economic growth in a quarter of sessions. But now the NBER declares it with a declination of economic growth that remarks for several months. The months which undergo the recession, experience a high inflation rate, temporary unemployment. Organizations start laying off people to decrease costs and halt losses, resulting in rising unemployment rates.

When industrial development decreases, the inflation rises and the GDP of a region falls it reflects or indicates recession. After the industrial revolution, things started to change, which also resulted in short-term recessions. There were long-term and short-term economic fall downs after the industrial revolution. The market goes down as demand increases with supply decreases, the industry loses manufacturing goods, the supply falls and the region faces a decline of economic growth which means recession.

If a recession takes place In a region, that region will suddenly lose its GDP level. The employment will decrease, the supply decreases, the share markets starts to experience low profit. The recession does not hold for many years, it lasts for a few months which doesn’t cost much as compared to depression.

What is Depression?

The depression is a lengthy and severe drop in economic activity. Within economics, depression can be described as a prolonged period of economic contraction that lasted 3 years or longer and results in a GDP Growth fall of at minimum 11%. Depression does not happen every time, it can happen in a gap of years. It does not happen in the middle of the economic year like a recession. Decreasing output in the economy levels are indicators of declining economic activity. Depression is the term used when an economy has been in depression for two or maybe more quarters.

The main thing in depression that a region can experience is a decrease in investments of people and companies. People lose confidence and people won’t be able to get short-term interest at a low rate. Every region is connected globally and every market is connected globally. During the depression, the market falls and also reflects the global connections. The trade is also affected. It is a much more severe financial slump than a setback, which is a regular business cycle slowdown in business activity. In a business sector, the depression can hit very hard, as it is connected with the entire world with different aspects. The way the economy changes the business also tends to change in its own way.

Main Differences Between Recession and Depression

  1. The main difference that you will find between Recession and depression is the time gap. A recession occurs mainly within months or it only lasts for a few months until it has reached better economic growth. But in a depression, the economic fall can last for several years.
  2. Both the terms differ in the severity of their cause. Both the terms have different consequences, as recession can only last for months. The interest rate starts to fall, consumers don’t find any interest. Depression can have a huge impact and it can cause many changes in society and even in the market too. It can ease up the industry works and the trades will be low in work.
  3. Recession can happen anytime, as it is still happening in many regions. And recession can cause a little problem that can be changed and dealt with. But, depression can cause a severe problem that can not be changed within a short period. It changes the political view, the social matters, the markets, etc.
  4. The recession does not have a sharp decline in GDP. But depression has a sharp GDP decline. The GDP falls so quickly in depression that it is very difficult to catch up on. While during the recession the GDP can be brought back with an instant increase of supply and service in the market.
  5. The early recession of 2000 caused an 11% decline in the GDP. The greatest depression of all time caused a panic situation for the whole world. And it caused a -28% decline in the GDP.


The economy depends on everything a region has in its market value. As well as its GDP growth. Recession and Depression happen when the market falls with a decrease in its growth value and GDP. The world is connected in numerous ways, and the economic way is the most important.

The world depends on every region with goods and services so that it can exchange money. The trade continues and the economy stays stable. If the region faces recession or depression then the economic stability will fall apart. This will cause a drastic change in the region with an increase in unemployment and decrease consumer trust.


  1. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJPPM-01-2015-0011/full/html
  2. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark%3A/67531/metadc26169/m1/1/high_res_d/R40655_2009Jun19.pdf

Search for "Ask Any Difference" on Google. Rate this post!(Total: 0 votes,average: 0 votes)