Skip to Content

Difference Between Bromine and Chlorine (With Table)

In chemistry, there’re a lot of elements that altogether form a periodic system and every element comes under some periodic table group. Each chemical group has similar chemical properties including valence electrons, atomic size, metallic character, and reactivity.  Coming to the halogen group consists of fluorine (F), chlorine(Cl), bromine(Br), iodine(I), and astatine(At). The halogen group exhibits similar nonmetallic chemical properties. Though, each element has its characteristics and properties. 

Bromine vs Chlorine

The main difference between bromine and chlorine is that bromine is a reddish-brown liquid. Meanwhile, chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas in a normal state. Secondly, Bromine is number 35 in the periodic table, while chlorine is number 17 in the periodic table. Thirdly, as for the atomic mass, bromine has a 79.904 atomic mass. Meanwhile, chlorine has an atomic mass of 35.453. Fourthly, Bromine is less reactive, although it does contribute to many chemical interactions, while chlorine is very reactive under normal conditions. Fifthly, bromine naturally occurs in two stable isotopes, while chlorine naturally occurs in a chemical compound or disassociated ions.  Lastly, Bromine oxidizes in a -1 configuration, although it can also have a positive oxidation state (+1, +3, +5, +7). Meanwhile, chlorine has all oxidization states from +1 to +7, except +2. 

Bromine is a nonmetallic element of group 7A of the periodic table which is a reddish-brown liquid in the normal state. It has the atomic number 35 with a 79.904 atomic mass. As for the reactivity, bromine is considered less reactive. However, it does contribute to many interactions. Moreover, it naturally occurs in two stable isotopes, but in the form of a mixture of these isotopes. It oxidizes in a -1 configuration, although it can also have a positive oxidation state (+1, +3, +5, +7). 

Chlorine is also a nonmetallic element of group 7A of the periodic table which is a greenish-yellow gas in the normal state. It has the atomic number 17 with a 35.453 atomic mass. As for the reactivity, chlorine is considered very reactive. Moreover, it naturally occurs in the form of chemical compounds or disassociated ions. . It has all oxidization states from +1 to +7, except +2. 

Comparison Table Between Bromine and Chlorine

Parameters of comparison Bromine Chlorine
State (Under normal conditions)Bromine is a reddish-brown liquid.Chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas in a normal state. 
Atomic number Bromine is number 35 in the periodic table.Chlorine is number 17 in the periodic table.
Atomic massAs for the atomic mass, bromine has a 79.904 atomic mass. Chlorine has an atomic mass of 35.453. 
Reactivity Bromine is less reactive, although it does contribute to many chemical interactions.Chlorine is very reactive under normal conditions. 
Natura OccurrenceBromine naturally occurs in two stable isotopes.Chlorine naturally occurs in a chemical compound or disassociated ions.  
Oxidation states Bromine oxidizes in a -1 configuration, although it can also have a positive oxidation state (+1, +3, +5, +7). Chlorine has all oxidization states from +1 to +7, except +2. 
Use Bromine is used in medical preparations, pesticides, dyes, flame retardants, etc.Chlorine is used in the production of hydrochloric acid, cleaning products, etc. 

What is Bromine? 

A periodic table consists of different elements that have different characteristics and properties. Halogen, a group in the periodic table consisting of nonmetallic elements which have similar properties in general. 

Bromine is a nonmetallic element of group 7A of the periodic table which is a reddish-brown liquid in the normal state. It has a really strong odor that can be irritating sometimes. As for the atomic number, it has an atomic number of 35 along with a 79.904 atomic mass. 

Unlike chlorine, bromine is very less reactive, although it does participate in many chemical interactions. Thus, it is considered much stable than chorine. 

The natural occurrence of bromine is quite stable as it occurs in a mixture of two stable isotopes. Also, it can also be extracted as the impurity in the chlorine mineral halite. Sylvite, Carnallite, etc. 

Moreover, the bromine water is composed of an aqueous solution of 2.8% of bromine and is used in many organic reactions. Even, the bromine is in a 1:660 ratio in the seawater with the majority of chlorine atoms. Hence, it has an oxidization state of -1, although it can also have a positive odd oxidation state (+1, +3, +5, +7). 

Lastly, the use of bromine can be seen in medical preparations, pesticides, dyes, flame retardants, etc.

What is Chlorine? 

As already mentioned, A periodic table consists of different elements that have different characteristics and properties. Halogen, a group in the periodic table consisting of nonmetallic elements which have similar properties in general. 

Chlorine is also a nonmetallic element of group 7A of the periodic table which is a greenish-yellow gas in the normal state. It has a very strong odor that can be irritating usually. As for the atomic number, it has an atomic number of 17 along with a 35.453 atomic mass. 

Unlike bromine, chlorine is very reactive, therefore it reacts more often and involves a variety of chemical interactions.

The natural occurrence of chlorine is in the form of a chemical compound or disassociated forms of ions. Also, it can be obtained from several minerals, such as halite, sylvite, carnalite, etc. Additionally, there are anions of chlorine present in the seas and oceans. Apparently, the bromine is in a 1:660 ratio in the seawater with the majority of chlorine atoms. 

Besides, chlorine is a strong oxidant and usually with an -1 oxidation state. Although, chlorine has a positive oxidation state when there’s a stronger oxidant present in the molecule. It has all oxidization states from +1 to +7, except +2. 

Lastly, Chlorine is used in the production of hydrochloric acid, cleaning products, etc. 

Main Differences Between Bromine and Chlorine

Bromine and Chlorine belong to the same halogen group in the periodic table and they are nonmetallic elements. Due to their similar properties and characterization as they belong to the same group in the periodic table. People tend to see them in the same light, but they are very different from each other. Yet, they have common properties and characterization as well. 

  1. Bromine is a reddish-brown liquid. Meanwhile, chlorine is a greenish-yellow gas in a normal state. 
  2. Bromine is number 35 in the periodic table, while chlorine is number 17 in the periodic table. 
  3. As for the atomic mass, bromine has a 79.904 atomic mass. Meanwhile, chlorine has an atomic mass of 35.453. 
  4. Bromine is less reactive, although it does contribute to many chemical interactions, while chlorine is very reactive under normal conditions.
  5.  Bromine naturally occurs in two stable isotopes, while chlorine naturally occurs in a chemical compound or disassociated ions. 
  6. Bromine oxidizes in a -1 configuration, although it can also have a positive oxidation state (+1, +3, +5, +7). Meanwhile, chlorine has all oxidization states from +1 to +7, except +2. 

Conclusion 

The elements in the same group in the periodic table exhibit similar properties and characterization. Yet, each element has its individuality. So, considering them as equal is not apt. As bromine and chlorine belong to the same halogen group, thus they do share similar properties. But, they are very different from each other on an individual level. 

Bromine is a nonmetallic element in Periodic Group 7A that is a reddish-brown liquid in its natural state. It has the atomic number 35 and an atomic mass of 79.904. Bromine is believed to be less reactive in terms of reactivity. It does, however, play a role in a variety of interactions. Furthermore, it exists naturally in two stable isotopes, but in a mixture of these isotopes. Although it can have a positive oxidation state (+1, +3, +5, +7), it oxidizes in a -1 configuration.

Chlorine is a nonmetallic element in the periodic table’s group 7A that is a greenish-yellow gas in its natural state. It has the atomic number 17 and a mass of 35.453. When it comes to reactivity, chlorine is regarded to be extremely reactive. Furthermore, it can be found in the form of chemical compounds or disassociated ions in nature. Except for +2, it possesses all oxidation states from +1 to +7.

References 

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0043135400002165
  2. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/ic00103a040
2D vs 3D x
2D vs 3D

Editorial Staff at Ask Any Difference is a team of experts in the field of "Difference Between" topics and led by Sandeep Bhandari, Piyush Yadav and Chara Yadav. Trusted by over 1.5 million readers worldwide.

PinterestLinkedIn, Facebook