Instrumental conditioning is used by well-known therapists, In which they use Reinforcement and punishment as a tool for reforming the behaviour of their clients.
Apart from therapy, these are used in the field of medicine and law. People confuse the two terms as synonyms, but they are very different in application.
- Reinforcement increases the likelihood of a behavior by presenting a desirable outcome (positive reinforcement) or removing an aversive stimulus (negative reinforcement).
- Punishment decreases the likelihood of a behavior by presenting an aversive stimulus (positive punishment) or removing a desirable outcome (negative punishment).
- Both reinforcement and punishment are principles of operant conditioning, a psychological theory that explains how consequences shape and modify voluntary behaviors.
Reinforcement vs Punishment
Reinforcement is a process of increasing the likelihood of a behavior by adding a stimulus or consequence, it aims to encourage the behavior. Punishment is a process of decreasing the likelihood of a behavior by adding an unpleasant stimulus or consequence, punishment aims to discourage the behavior.
Reinforcement is studied in psychology as the tool for boosting or enhancing the behaviour of a subject. B.F Skinner first expressed this theory in psychology, but Edward Thorndike is credited for testing reinforcement in the laboratory.
It can be applied in both senses, positive or negative.
Punishment is studied in psychology as a tool for restricting the behaviour of a subject.
From a small family in the state to the courts there, punishment is practised as a common tool for reforming the behaviour of the subject in a particular condition. Punishment can be positive or negative.
|Parameters Of Comparison||Reinforcement||Punishment|
|Meaning||The process by which behaviour of the subject is encouraged for the future.||The process by which behaviour of the subject is discouraged for the future.|
|Side effects||The reinforcement process results in fewer side effects than punishment.||The punishment process results in more side effects than in reinforcement.|
|Application||It is being applied in psychology, judiciary, Human resources, child care etc.||It is also applied in the judiciary, human resources, child care, traffic penalties etc.|
|Expressed by||BF Skinner and Edward Thorndike expressed reinforcement.||BF Skinner expressed the process of punishment in psychology.|
|Famous Books||“Power of reinforcement” by Stephen Ray Flora, “Schedules of reinforcement” by Charles etc.||“Psychology of punishment” by Nicholas Castro, “punishment” by Hans von Hentig.|
What is Reinforcement?
A psychological process by which the behaviour of a subject is encouraged for the future. First expressed by BF Skinner in psychology, reinforcement is now being used in every aspect of society.
In psychology, it is used by therapists to encourage their client’s behaviour. In judicial cases, it is used by judges to make sure the victim is provided with enough security.
Reinforcement techniques are used in the Industrial and cooperative sectors to encourage employees to attain higher targets.
Providing bonuses and extra services to employees is a way of reinforcing them. Reinforcement was first tested in the laboratory by Edward Thorndike.
After this, mathematical models were being made for studying reinforcement, one of which was “mathematical principles of reinforcement ” by Peter Killen.
This psychological process of enhancing one’s behaviour is being used in two ways. It can be positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement.
In positive reinforcement, the subject is provided with an incentive or appreciation to boost their behaviour. For example, giving bonuses to employees.
But in negative reinforcement, something is charged on the subject for them to behave accordingly in the future.
For example, employees are charged monthly from their salary for their insurance premiums, this encourages an employee, as they are getting security.
What is Punishment?
A psychological process by which the behaviour of a subject is limited for the future. As expressed by BF Skinner in psychology, Punishment is very commonly used in every aspect of social life.
A very common example of Punishment is Traffic penalties. The subject is charged with some amount when they break any traffic rules. This discourages them and limits this same behaviour in future.
Apart from penalties and fines, Punishment is commonly used in the judicial system, Criminals are being punished for their crimes. This results in the limitation of further crimes in society.
Punishments are given in Schools to limit any unwanted behaviour of students. For example, punishing a student for coming late to school. In Industries, Employees are charged from their salary for their extra leaves taken.
This psychological process of limiting one’s behaviour is used in two ways, and it can be positive punishment or negative punishment. At first, the subject receives something which discourages them from behaving similarly in the future.
For example, students receive a suspension of one week from school due to their offensive behaviour. In second, something is taken away from the subject to discourage future behaviour.
For example, Taking away a child’s favourite toy to teach them a particular lesson.
Main Differences Between Reinforcement and Punishment
- A psychological process of encouraging one’s behaviour is called reinforcement, whereas a psychological process of limiting one’s behaviour is called punishment.
- Reinforcement and punishment are both expressed by BF Skinner, according to him, Reinforcement results in fewer side effects on an individual than in punishment.
- Both psychological processes have similar application areas, but their goals are different. That is, if something is given to a subject, and it limits their behaviour, it’s punishment. But if it encourages the behaviour, it’s reinforcement and vice versa.
- Various books are written on both topics. For reinforcement, two of the famous books are Power of Reinforcement and Schedules of Reinforcement. But for punishment, two famous books are Psychology of Punishment and Punishment.
- In today’s era, Reinforcement is weighed more than punishment, as it is seen that punishment reaps results for the short term, but in reinforcement, results last for a longer period.
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Emma Smith holds an MA degree in English from Irvine Valley College. She has been a Journalist since 2002, writing articles on the English language, Sports, and Law. Read more about me on her bio page.