Difference Between Since and Until (With Table)

Since vs Until

English grammar is one of the crucial principals when it comes to the study of language. Alas, this study can also be tricky and complicated. Even though the technique of learning grammar has completely changed over the past few years, the basis for learning grammar has remained the same.

As human beings, we can all do grammar by putting sentences together. But to be able to talk about how the right cluster of words helps a sentence communicate meaning, the use of noun, pronoun, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, phrase, idioms or clauses to help write sentences understandably and briefly rather than lengthy and intricate ones, the use of the word order:  Subject + Verb + Object to shape the actual meaning of the sentence, precise use of punctuations sheds light on where to prevent and what to emphasize and how these sentences later form meaningful paragraphs—that’s the nuts and bolts of grammar. Grammar rules are all you need to make your communication consistent and rational.

Knowledge of vital grammar is necessary to scrutinize and enhance the conduct of your language. Grammar is the solution when it comes to boldly express the language of English.

Grammar lays out the decree for phonetic as well as written language so that the readers can understand what they read and the writers can prepare a syntactic structure that transmits clear cut meaning to their audience. Substance ought to circulate from one sentence to the other, conveying the opinion further in a comprehensible and brief manner. 

The main differences between the two words- Since and Until is that:

  1. Since can be used as a preposition, an adverb and a conjunction
  2. Since as a preposition is followed by a noun. Example: Everything has changed so much since last Christmas.
  3. Since as an adverb does not have a following noun. Example: Ursula left college in 2006 and hasn’t been seen since.
  4. Since as a conjunction attach two clauses. For Example: Pearl’s had multiple job opportunities since she left college.
  5. Until can be used both as a preposition and a conjunction
  6. Until as a preposition means up to that point of time. Example: Roxanne studied French until midnight.
  7. Until as a conjunction is used to connect an event to a point in time. Example: Rahim will stay here until Raj comes back with his umbrella

 

Comparison Table Between Since and Until (in Tabular Form)

Parameter of comparisonSinceUntil
MeaningThe word ‘since’ refers to the time when the event began or when the action has already happened. The word ‘until’ refers to the time when an event ends or when the action is yet to happen.
Grammatical formThe word ‘since’ is a preposition, conjunction, and an adverb.Until can be considered as both a preposition and a conjunction.
Tenses usedThe tenses used with the word since are past perfect and present perfect tense.The tenses used with until are simple past, simple present, past perfect and present perfect tense.
As a prepositionThe word ‘since’ can be used after a certain period in the past. For example: I haven’t watched the lion king since 2008Until can be used up to a specified period. For example: we watched the movie until midnight.
As a conjunctionThe word ‘since’ can be used from a precise time in the past till now. For example: I have been busy since I started my new internship.Until can be used up to a specified time the event has been mentioned. For example: I will wait here until Shreyas arrives.

 

When to Use Since?

The word ‘since’ is a word that falls under prepositions, conjunctions, and an adverb with the elements of speech in the English Language. “Since” can be used in a sentence as a respect to time and refers to that certain point of time in the past. It can also refer to a time starting within the past and continuing until this date.

 General rules to follow when we use the word ‘since’:

  • When we use since in a sentence we must use the present perfect and past perfect tenses.

For example: 

  1. Correct statement: He has been out of his apartment since you last called.
  2. Incorrect statement: He is out of his apartment since you last called.
  •  The word ‘since’ must not be used to denote time in the future or the present.

For example:

  1. Correct statement: I have been in the bar since 9 p.m.
  2. Incorrect statement: I’ll be in the bar since 7 o’clock this evening.
  • Since cannot be used to express the duration

For example:

  1. Correct statement: According to the register, no marriages at the chapel have occurred since 2006.
  2. Incorrect statement: The accountant may refuse the payment if the account holder has not made the payments since five months.
  • The word ‘since’ can be used in a sentence with ever to add tension to the statement.
  1. For example: Ever since I was a kid I have been afraid of heights.
  2. For example: There have been many changes in my state since the election of the new minister.
  • The word ‘since’ can be used when describing why someone does something or why a scenario occurs.

For example: I will not be able to attend the wedding since I shall be on holiday with my family.

  • Since+ -ing can be used at a time when the subject of the verb is the same in the subordinate and main clause

For example: Since he left home, he has had three or four job opportunities.

  • Since can be used as a conjunction to give a reason for something

For example: Since her parents hated traveling so much, she decided to go on her own.

  • We use the word since and not ago after it’s a long time
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For example:

  1. Correct statement: It’s been a long time since your last letter.
  2. Incorrect statement: It’s a long time ago your last letter.
Since usage
 

When to Use Until?

Until can be used either as a preposition or a conjunction. The word ‘until’ is generally condensed to the word till or ’til. Till and ’til are not usually used for formal writing since they are informal.

The word ‘until’ can be used to indicate an event to a specified time. The word ‘until’ can also be used to refer to when a situation begins. For example: comments on my essay may be submitted until 28 September 2009.

General rules to follow when we use the word ‘until’:

  1. From can be used with until to discuss when an action begins and when it ends

Example: the park in front of our school will be open from 9 am until 6 pm tomorrow.

  • The word ‘until’ cannot be used to talk about quantitative data or numbers.
  1. For example: Correct statement: The elevator can take up to ten people at a time.
  2. Incorrect statement: The wedding hall can hold until two hundred guests.
  • Present perfect tense is used to signify to events that will go on up to a particular point of time in the mere future.
  1. Example: Correct statement: Stir the tea until the sugar has dissolved.
  2. Incorrect statement: stir the tea until the sugar will have dissolved.
  • Instead of the word until we use the phrase ‘as far as’ to talk about distance.
  1. Example: Correct statement: We had to travel as far as Campbelltown for the last basketball match that I played.
  2. Incorrect statement: We had to travel until Campbelltown for the last basketball match that I played.
  • Past perfect and simple past tenses use the word ‘until’ to talk about past events.

Example: simple past: He was a professor at Oxford University until he retired in 2001.

Past perfect: We couldn’t switch on the lights until the electrician had finished.

  • The word ‘until’ is not used when we talk about an action that would occur before a specific time.
  1. Example: Correct statement: the paperwork must be submitted by Monday, July 26 2001.
  2. Incorrect statement: the paperwork must be submitted until Monday, July 26 2001.
  • However the word ‘until’ can be used with negative sentences before a specified time or event takes place.

For example: Until you finish your homework, you can’t go out to play (conjunction)

Rahim won’t see you until tomorrow (preposition)

  • Until can be used up to the time expressed

For example: How can I stay awake until 6 a.m?

  • The word ‘until’ can be used in events where one action happens only when the other action has happened.

For example: It was only until spiderman was bitten by a radioactive spider that he gained the abilities of a spider.

  1. After the word until present verb forms can be used to refer to the future.
  1. For example: Correct statement: I can’t wait until I can visit Paris again.
  2. Incorrect statement: I can’t wait until the summer holidays will begin
Until

Main Differences Between Since and Until

  • The word ‘since’ can be used when an event/ action has already happened. For example: I haven’t met him since the wedding. The word ‘until’ can be used when an event/ action is yet to happen. For example: I didn’t know what to tell him until then.
  • The word ‘since’ has different meanings as a preposition, conjunction, and an adverb. The word until has meanings as a preposition and a conjunction.
  • The word ‘since’ can be used to construct a sentence with the following tenses: Past perfect and present perfect tense. The word ‘until’ can be used to construct a sentence with the following tenses: simple past, simple present, past perfect tense, and present perfect tense.
  • As a preposition, the word ‘since’ is used after a certain period in the past. For example: I haven’t had a phone since I was 8 years old. As a preposition, the word ‘until’ can be used to a certain point of time. For example: Sarah and I played monopoly until 9 p.m.
  • As a conjunction, since refers to a certain period in the past that continues up to the present. For example: I have been busy since my new career. As a conjunction until can be defined as up to a time the event has been mentioned. For example: I will wait at the airport until Shreyas arrives.

 

Conclusion

Grammar has always been an area of expertise for quite some time. Individuals often relate grammar with flaws and precision but grammar is so much more than just that. It helps people comprehend how sentences can be constructed, how paragraphs can convey a thorough and error-free notion and how the clear-cut order of words is elucidative when it comes to conversing in English because it can influence the idea of what you’re trying to say. Getting rid of grammatical errors can profit the audience with a crystal clear presentation.

In this article we have compared the two words- until and since, which are antonyms of each other. Even though since and until may have the similarity of referring to a certain period, yet they are comparatively different because since refers to the time when an action began whereas the word ‘until’ refers to a time when an event ends.


 

Word Cloud for Difference Between Since and Until

The following is a collection of the most used terms in this article on Since and Until. This should help in recalling related terms as used in this article at a later stage for you.

Difference between since and until

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