Difference Between Biotic and Abiotic (With Table)

Biotic and abiotic are the two main components of an ecosystem that are responsible for the proper functioning of the ecosystem and environment. The major difference between these two components is that biotic refers to all the living organisms on the planet earth and abiotic is all the non-living substances found such as water, air, and any metal form that exists.

Biotic vs Abiotic

The difference between the term biotic and abiotic is that the biotic components present in the ecosystem are generally living components and the abiotic components are the non-living components. This is considered the major difference between the two components, affecting the ecosystem separately.

Biotic components are can be defined as all the components which are in the living form. The word biotic is derived from the Greek word biotikos which in greek means about life. The biotic factors result in producing the by-factors which ultimately help In developing the ecosystem furthermore.

According to the biological meaning of the term, abiotic are all those natural phenomena that are responsible for the proper functioning of the ecosystem for example all the chemicals, natural gases, sunlight, etc. fall under abiotic components which helps. abiotic factors are indulged in providing the basic factors requires for producing the by-product for biotic components. If we look into the example we can see that during the process of photosynthesis plants requires sunlight, air, and water to produce their own food.

Comparison Table Between Biotic and Abiotic

Parameters of ComparisonBioticAbiotic
IntroductionIf we look into the definition of biotic in the ecosystem, it is nothing but all the living organisms surviving on the ecosystem.Abiotic are basically those things that are non-living but plays an important role in the ecosystem without which the ecosystem would not be complete
ExamplesPlants, humans, fungi, bacteria, etc.Water, air, sunlight, etc.
Factors involveIn the biotic category, we generally see that they help in forming a cycle in the ecosystem by producing and reproducing and gradually building up the cycle.The abiotic factors generally help in developing the cycle of the ecosystem in external terms for example sunlight is the basic requirement for plants during photosynthesis. So, they are involved with biotic in some or another way.
AffectsBiotics directly affects the ecosystem as well as the life cycle in the ecosystem and life cycle.Abiotic indirectly affects both ecosystems as well as a life cycle.
AdaptationIt can adapt very easilyIt takes time for adaptation
OriginThey originate from the biosphereThey originate from the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere

What are Biotic Components?

Biotic in simple terms can be defined as a living organism that can survive on its own. Biotics directly affects the ecosystem because they help the nature and ecosystem produce, reproduce, and maintain a healthy balance in the ecosystem. Biotic factors help to create a life cycle in the ecosystem for example we can say that plants make their own food, and humans are dependent on plants and animals for food and the cycle continues.

The three main elements of biotic components are:

  1. Producers
  2. Consumers
  3. Decomposers

Producers are those organisms who produce their own food for example plants,

Consumers are those who are dependent on producers for the survival of their food for example humans

Decomposers are those creatures who decomposes the leftovers which are not decomposed  or are leftover by humans

What are Abiotic Components?

Abiotic components are those components that are involved in the ecosystem externally for example all the physical as well as chemical factors such as air, water, sunlight, natural gases like carbon dioxide, oxygen, etc. which helps in the survival of biotic components they not only help them to survive but they create a healthy environment for them to grow. In simpler terms, we can say that abiotic factors are responsible for the survival of biotic components.

Types of abiotic factors:

There are mostly three types of abiotic factors they are:

  1. Edaphic factors – edaphic factors mostly include land, soil, minierals mountains, vallelys, etc. The word edaphic is derived from a greek word edaphos that means floor.
  2. Topographic factor– tropographic factors are likely to influence the large scale area there fore these factors include altitude, surface, exposures, slope erc.
  3. Cliamatic factor– cliamatic factor as the name suggests all the cliamatic features which can influence the biotic components such as light, atmospheric temprature, particles present in the air, etc. falls under the cliamatic factor.

These three are considered to be the most important factor influencing the abiotic components in the ecosystem.

  Main Differences Between Biotic and Abiotic Components

  1. The major difference between biotic and abiotic components are that the biotic components are living organisms that can breathe for survival where as if we take a look into abiotic components, they are non-living organisms which do not require anything for survival.
  2. Abiotic factors have direct effect on the biotic components by affecting the ability to produce and reproduce by providing them the suitable conditions regarding where as biotic factors have direct influence over themselves which can be seen in the form of life cycle where the organisms are interdependent on each other for the purpose of obtaining and procuring food.
  3. Biotic factor generally originates from the biosphere whereas abiotic factors originate from lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.
  4. The biotic components directly affect the ecosystem and the abiotic factor affects indirectly.
  5. Biotic factors can easily adapt to the environmental changes and abiotic factors takes time to adjust according the nature.


Biotic as well as abiotic components are important components of an ecosystem. They both are of the same importance in an ecosystem, but they differ in almost every aspect. Biotic and abiotic factors both are interdependent when it comes to the functioning of an ecosystem. It has been seen that both of them have their own specialty and uniqueness which is considered to be an important factor for the existence of a sustainable ecosystem.

Abiotic components are the necessity of biotic components and vice versa. It has been seen that both of them are interrelated to each other for examples plants and human beings can not survive without sunlight and water, similarly, it is seen that abiotic components are useless without the biotic components and they will have no meaning to it. If looking into the difference between biotic and abiotic it can be concluded that both of them are entirely different from each other but a proper ecosystem can not be formed without the two major components that are the biotic as well as abiotic components.

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