The user of a computer must be able to communicate with it. For any command and output, a medium of instruction is needed. A computer certainly cannot understand simple English or any other human language.
To solve this dilemma, computer languages like C and C++, amongst many more, were invented.
C vs C++
C is a general-purpose programming language that was originally developed in the 1970s. It is a low-level language used for system programming. C++ is an extension of the C language that was developed in the 1980s. It is designed to support object-oriented programming (OOP) and for general purposes.
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C is a procedural programming language which means it uses a series of steps for the program to solve the given problem.
It has a small fixed number of keywords (32) and a large number of operators that can be used by users to develop any program with low memory access and separated data and functions.
C++ is both a procedural and object-oriented programming language. It is a combination of both the variety. It has a comparatively larger number of keywords (63) and is an object-oriented language.
It’s supports polymorphism, encapsulation, and inheritance. It has larger memory access and is more manipulative or user friendly.
|Parameters of Comparison||C||C++|
|Developed By||C was developed between the years 1969 and 1973 by Dennis Ritchie, an American computer scientist.||C++ was developed in the year 1979 by Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist.|
|Type of Language||C is a procedure-oriented programming language.|
C++ is a procedure-oriented programming language as well as an object-oriented programming language.
|OOP Support||C does not support OPP this data encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance us not supported by C.||C++, on the other hand, supports data encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance.|
|Security||As data is not encapsulated in C, it is open to access by other codes.||Data encapsulation enhances data security and makes sure that data structures and functions are used only by the user and not any external code.|
|Supported Features||C does not support features such as function operator, overloading, namespace feature, reference variable functionality, virtual and friend operations and exceptional handling.||C++ supports features such as function operator, overloading, namespace feature, the reference variable functionality, virtual and friend operations and exceptional handling.|
|Header file||The header file used by the C program is studio.h||The header file used by C++ is iostream.h|
|Keywords||C programming language has 32 keywords.||C++ program has 63 keywords.|
|Access modifiers||C lacks access modifiers.||Access modifiers are present in C++.|
|Driven Type||Essentially C is focused on method or process rather than data. It is function-driven.||C++ is focused on data rather than the method or process. In essence, it is object driven.|
What is C?
C is a programming language developed by Dennis Ritchie, an American computer scientist between 1969 and 1973 at AT&T Bell Labs. C is a procedural programming language with a defined structure.
The defined structure of a C program is as follows :
- Header ( #include <studio.h>)
- Variable Declaration
This language uses a small number of keywords and operators to solve any problem in a series of defined steps. This programming language is procedure or method oriented. It provides core concepts like strings, arrays, functions etc., and can be used for low-level programming.
It cannot be used for internet programming. As the C programming language provides basic functions and keywords, it is also called the mother of all programming languages as most of them trace back their base to this language.
However, it does not support functions or operators overloading and data encapsulation that makes data insecure as they exist as free files on the device that can be accessed by other codes.
They are not machine-dependent, however, uses pointer arithmetic, giving the language the dual nature of being both low-level like and high-level like a programming language.
However, the language is easy to understand and use and is the base of almost all programming languages that followed it.
What is C++?
C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, in the year 1979.C++ is essentially a superset of the C language. It used a similar syntax and code structure.
It, however, has a larger number of keywords and operators. Its grammar is slightly extended. This language, however, supports procedure-oriented as well as object-oriented programming.
With object orientation programming (OPP), it supports inheritance, polymorphism, encapsulation, and abstraction of data. This allows the programming to be more secure as data remains encapsulated.
It supports other features like variable and operator overloading, exceptional handling, various functions and also functions inside a structure. These added features make the programming language stand up a notch and more user friendly.
Main Differences Between C and C++
- C is a structure or method or procedure-oriented programming language, while C++ is a culmination of both object orientation and procedure orientation.
- C language contains all the functions and keywords of the C++ language and hence is called its subset, while the latter is called its superset with its advanced and added features.
- Data encapsulation is missing in C as it is not object-oriented making information insecure. Data encapsulation allows information hiding to make the object-oriented C++ programming language more secure.
- The header file of C programs is the studio.h while that of C++ is iostream.h
- C has malloc() and calloc() functions for memory allocation while C++ has new operator. C also has a free() function for memory clearing, while C++ has a delete operator.
- C has scanf() and printf() operator for input and output, while C++ uses cin and cout for the same action.
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Sandeep Bhandari holds a Bachelor of Engineering in Computers from Thapar University (2006). He has 20 years of experience in the technology field. He has a keen interest in various technical fields, including database systems, computer networks, and programming. You can read more about him on his bio page.