Object-oriented programming refers to a programming paradigm based on the concept of objects. These objects accommodate data and code.
The data referred to as attributes are in the form of fields. In contrast, codes referred to as methods are in the form of procedures. One of the most important concepts of object-oriented programming includes Data hiding and Encapsulation.
- Data hiding is a technique used in object-oriented programming to restrict access to certain variables or methods within a class. In contrast, data encapsulation is a broader concept that involves bundling data and methods within a class to create a “capsule” of functionality.
- Data hiding helps prevent unintended changes to variables or methods, while data encapsulation helps simplify code by grouping related functionality.
- Data hiding and encapsulation are related concepts, but data encapsulation is a more general technique encompassing data hiding and other programming practices.
Data Hiding vs Data Encapsulation
The difference between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation is that Data hiding refers to a process, and Data Encapsulation is part of a sub-process of that process. The two concepts have different meanings, one being a part of the other. Other differences include their objectives, focus, access specifier, and process.
Data hiding refers to a concept of object-oriented programming. The security of members of a certain class from unrecognized access is confirmed by the process of Data hiding.
It protects the data and its members from being hacked. If data is hacked, it can lead to leakage of information or illegal manipulation.
Data Encapsulation is also known as part of Data Hiding. Data Encapsulation refers to another concept in object-oriented programming. It is a mechanism that hides the implementation details of a class from a user.
In object-oriented programming languages, it also refers to the wrapping up of private data in classes.
|Parameters of Comparison||Data Hiding||Data Encapsulation|
|Meaning||It refers to the protection of a member of a class from unrecognized, illegal or unauthorized access.||It refers to the wrapping of the implementation details of certain data member and methods within a class.|
|Objective||The objective is securing data and hiding complexity of data.||Encapsulation is concerned with wrapping data to hide the intricacy of a system, which makes the system simple and easier to operate by the end-user.|
|Focus||Here the main focus is on providing restrictions or allowance of data usage within a capsule.||Here the main focus is wrapping or enveloping the intricate data.|
|Access Specifier||Under Data Hiding the data is solely private and inaccessible.||Under Data Encapsulation, the data is not necessarily private and can be public.|
|Process||It refers to a separate process as well as a technique.||It refers to a part of the process within data hiding.|
What is Data Hiding?
Data can transmit information, maintain records or notes, and various other purposes. Data can be private or public, depending on the data member or owners.
If certain data is manipulated, it has adverse effects, including wrong results. It also has the potential to harm the integrity of certain data. All of these things make Data not only sensitive but volatile content of a program.
This is why the data needs to be safe and protected. This can be done by restricting outside access.
In object-oriented languages, access modifiers are basically the keywords that set the accessibility of classes, methods, and other members. Different types of access modifiers exist, including private, public, and protected.
In Java, these access modifiers help in controlling Data Hiding. If the data is public, it is easily accessible to outsiders. People outside a particular class can access this data.
Hence, for the purpose of hiding data or restricting outsiders from accessing it, one needs to declare the data private. Once the data is declared private, it has restricted access, which means it can be accessed only by objects of a certain class.
What is Data Encapsulation?
Data Encapsulation is a concept of object-oriented programming language, which is a sub-process of Data hiding. It focuses on wrapping up data and reducing data complexity.
It refers to binding code and data with each other in a capsule. This is done to hide the intricacy of a certain class.
In data hiding, the access specifiers have a prominent role in protecting the data from unknown access from the outside. In data encapsulation, the access specifiers have a prominent role in protecting the data from unknown access from the inside.
In data encapsulation, the members within a class can be private, public, and protected.
It gives access to the members according to the classes. For example, private members of a particular class will be given access to the objects of that particular class. Encapsulation deals with the internal working of a system rather than the external one.
For example, A Mcdonald’s employee works for taking orders and handing them over to the customers. His job is to type the orders in the machine and give the tray when it’s prepared.
He doesn’t need to know how the order is prepared. And this is how data encapsulation helps in reducing a system’s complexity.
Main Differences Between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation
- Data Hiding refers to the protection of a member of a class from unrecognized, illegal or unauthorized access. Encapsulation refers to wrapping the implementation details of a certain data member and methods within a class.
- The objective of data hiding is securing data and hiding the complexity of data. Data encapsulation aims to hide the intricacy of data and simplify the system for operation by the end-user.
- In data hiding, the main focus is on providing restrictions or allowance of data usage within a capsule. In data encapsulation, the main focus is wrapping or enveloping the intricate data.
- Under Data Hiding, the data is solely private and inaccessible. Under Data Encapsulation, the data is not necessarily private and can be public.
- Data hiding is a separate process as well as a technique. Data Encapsulation, on the other hand, is a part of the process within data hiding.
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Sandeep Bhandari holds a Bachelor of Engineering in Computers from Thapar University (2006). He has 20 years of experience in the technology field. He has a keen interest in various technical fields, including database systems, computer networks, and programming. You can read more about him on his bio page.