Data Hiding vs Data Encapsulation: Difference and Comparison

Object-oriented programming refers to a programming paradigm based on the concept of objects. These objects accommodate data and code.

The data referred to as attributes are in the form of fields. In contrast, codes referred to as methods are in the form of procedures. One of the most important concepts of object-oriented programming includes Data hiding and Encapsulation. 

Key Takeaways

  1. Data hiding is a technique used in object-oriented programming to restrict access to certain variables or methods within a class. In contrast, data encapsulation is a broader concept that involves bundling data and methods within a class to create a “capsule” of functionality.
  2. Data hiding helps prevent unintended changes to variables or methods, while data encapsulation helps simplify code by grouping related functionality.
  3. Data hiding and encapsulation are related concepts, but data encapsulation is a more general technique encompassing data hiding and other programming practices.

Data Hiding vs Data Encapsulation

The difference between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation is that Data hiding refers to a process, and Data Encapsulation is part of a sub-process of that process. The two concepts have different meanings, one being a part of the other. Other differences include their objectives, focus, access specifier, and process.

Data Hiding vs Data Encapsulation

Data hiding refers to a concept of object-oriented programming. The security of members of a certain class from unrecognized access is confirmed by the process of Data hiding.

It protects the data and its members from being hacked. If data is hacked, it can lead to leakage of information or illegal manipulation. 

Data Encapsulation is also known as part of Data Hiding. Data Encapsulation refers to another concept in object-oriented programming. It is a mechanism that hides the implementation details of a class from a user.

In object-oriented programming languages, it also refers to the wrapping up of private data in classes.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonData HidingData Encapsulation
MeaningIt refers to the protection of a member of a class from unrecognized, illegal or unauthorized access.It refers to the wrapping of the implementation details of certain data member and methods within a class.
ObjectiveThe objective is securing data and hiding complexity of data.Encapsulation is concerned with wrapping data to hide the intricacy of a system, which makes the system simple and easier to operate by the end-user.
FocusHere the main focus is on providing restrictions or allowance of data usage within a capsule.Here the main focus is wrapping or enveloping the intricate data.
Access SpecifierUnder Data Hiding the data is solely private and inaccessible.Under Data Encapsulation, the data is not necessarily private and can be public.
ProcessIt refers to a separate process as well as a technique.It refers to a part of the process within data hiding.

What is Data Hiding?

Data can transmit information, maintain records or notes, and various other purposes. Data can be private or public, depending on the data member or owners.

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If certain data is manipulated, it has adverse effects, including wrong results. It also has the potential to harm the integrity of certain data. All of these things make Data not only sensitive but volatile content of a program.

This is why the data needs to be safe and protected. This can be done by restricting outside access.

In object-oriented languages, access modifiers are basically the keywords that set the accessibility of classes, methods, and other members. Different types of access modifiers exist, including private, public, and protected.

In Java, these access modifiers help in controlling Data Hiding. If the data is public, it is easily accessible to outsiders. People outside a particular class can access this data. 

Hence, for the purpose of hiding data or restricting outsiders from accessing it, one needs to declare the data private. Once the data is declared private, it has restricted access, which means it can be accessed only by objects of a certain class. 

What is Data Encapsulation?

Data Encapsulation is a concept of object-oriented programming language, which is a sub-process of Data hiding. It focuses on wrapping up data and reducing data complexity.

It refers to binding code and data with each other in a capsule. This is done to hide the intricacy of a certain class. 

In data hiding, the access specifiers have a prominent role in protecting the data from unknown access from the outside. In data encapsulation, the access specifiers have a prominent role in protecting the data from unknown access from the inside.

In data encapsulation, the members within a class can be private, public, and protected.

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It gives access to the members according to the classes. For example, private members of a particular class will be given access to the objects of that particular class. Encapsulation deals with the internal working of a system rather than the external one. 

For example, A Mcdonald’s employee works for taking orders and handing them over to the customers. His job is to type the orders in the machine and give the tray when it’s prepared.

He doesn’t need to know how the order is prepared. And this is how data encapsulation helps in reducing a system’s complexity.

Main Differences Between Data Hiding and Data Encapsulation

  1. Data Hiding refers to the protection of a member of a class from unrecognized, illegal or unauthorized access. Encapsulation refers to wrapping the implementation details of a certain data member and methods within a class.
  2. The objective of data hiding is securing data and hiding the complexity of data. Data encapsulation aims to hide the intricacy of data and simplify the system for operation by the end-user.
  3. In data hiding, the main focus is on providing restrictions or allowance of data usage within a capsule. In data encapsulation, the main focus is wrapping or enveloping the intricate data.
  4. Under Data Hiding, the data is solely private and inaccessible. Under Data Encapsulation, the data is not necessarily private and can be public.
  5. Data hiding is a separate process as well as a technique. Data Encapsulation, on the other hand, is a part of the process within data hiding.
References
  1. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/4426486/
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/818099/

 

Last Updated : 28 June, 2023

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26 thoughts on “Data Hiding vs Data Encapsulation: Difference and Comparison”

  1. The explanations provided in the article were thoughtfully articulated, shedding light on the significance of data hiding and encapsulation in maintaining data security. Understanding these concepts is crucial for writing robust and secure code.

    Reply
    • I found the detailed explanations of data hiding and encapsulation very informative. It offered valuable insights into maintaining data integrity and security in object-oriented programming.

      Reply
    • Absolutely, Kimberly. The article effectively highlighted the importance of access modifiers for controlling data hiding and protecting sensitive information.

      Reply
  2. The article brilliantly articulated the importance of data protection and integrity in object-oriented programming. Understanding data hiding and data encapsulation is crucial for writing robust and secure code.

    Reply
    • I share your sentiments, Naomi. This article provided a comprehensive understanding of how data hiding and encapsulation contribute to maintaining data security in programming.

      Reply
  3. This article provided a clear understanding of the concepts of data hiding and data encapsulation in object-oriented programming. The comparison table and detailed explanations were particularly useful.

    Reply
    • I found the explanation of data encapsulation very insightful, Jasmine. Understanding how it simplifies the complexity of a class is crucial for writing efficient code.

      Reply
  4. Thank you for explaining the concepts of data hiding and data encapsulation in detail. This article has helped me better understand the key differences and the importance of protecting data in object-oriented programming.

    Reply
    • I appreciate the comparison table that highlights the differences between data hiding and data encapsulation. It makes it easier to grasp the nuances of each concept.

      Reply
  5. The article effectively conveyed the significance of access specifiers and the process of data encapsulation. Understanding these concepts is essential for writing secure and efficient code in object-oriented languages.

    Reply
    • I found the explanation of data encapsulation very informative. It’s fascinating to learn how encapsulation simplifies the complexity of a class for end-users.

      Reply
    • Absolutely, Julie. The article provided valuable insights into how access specifiers play a crucial role in protecting sensitive data.

      Reply
  6. The article provided a comprehensive and insightful overview of data hiding and data encapsulation, emphasizing the importance of protecting data from unauthorized access and manipulation. Thank you for sharing this valuable information.

    Reply
    • The comparison table effectively highlighted the key differences between data hiding and data encapsulation, making it easier to comprehend the nuances of each concept.

      Reply
    • I completely agree, Alex. The article’s emphasis on data protection and the role of access specifiers in data encapsulation was particularly enlightening.

      Reply
  7. The detailed explanation of data hiding and data encapsulation has deepened my understanding of these fundamental concepts in object-oriented programming. Thank you for shedding light on the objectives and focus of each technique.

    Reply
    • I also found the comparison table very helpful in distinguishing the key aspects of data hiding and data encapsulation. It clarified the differences clearly and concisely.

      Reply
    • I couldn’t agree more, Harrison! The article provided a comprehensive overview of data hiding and encapsulation, emphasizing their importance in maintaining data security.

      Reply
  8. The article effectively explained data hiding and encapsulation, shedding light on how access specifiers play a vital role in protecting sensitive data in object-oriented programming. An insightful read!

    Reply
    • I completely agree, Carlie. The article provided a thorough overview of these concepts, emphasizing the significance of protecting data from unauthorized access.

      Reply
  9. The article effectively highlighted the distinction between data hiding and data encapsulation, providing a comprehensive understanding of these essential concepts. Well done!

    Reply
    • I agree, Cwilson. The article’s emphasis on the objectives and focus of each technique was enlightening and deepened my knowledge of object-oriented programming.

      Reply
    • The comparison table was incredibly helpful in understanding the differences between data hiding and data encapsulation. It made the concepts clearer and more accessible.

      Reply
  10. This article effectively conveyed the concepts of data hiding and data encapsulation, shedding light on their significance in maintaining data security. The explanations were clear and insightful, providing a deeper understanding of these essential concepts.

    Reply
    • I found the detailed explanations of data hiding and data encapsulation very informative and easy to comprehend. Understanding these concepts is crucial for writing secure and efficient code.

      Reply

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