Calls in Arrears vs Calls in Advance: Difference and Comparison

The difference between calls in arrears and calls in advance is that calls in arrears are assets to a company, for they are the amount of allotment a shareholder is due and fails to pay a company within the prescribed time while on the other hand, calls in advance are the excess amount of money a shareholder pays as part of his or her shares to a company before it calls for payment.

Calls in arrears represent the difference between the money that a shareholder owes a company and the call money received by a company from the shareholder.

The interest rate of calls in arrears is 10%of the total as per Table F of the Companies Act 2013, that is, if the books of the company are silent about the interest rate to be charged.

Calls in advance are the amount of money paid in excess by a shareholder to a company as part of his or her shares before the actual call by the company.

It is therefore credited, and the amount is adjusted towards the payment of the calls in case of an allotment by the company.

Calls in advance are not part of the current liabilities in a balance sheet but part of other current liabilities.

Key Takeaways

  1. Arrow calls occur when a shareholder fails to pay the due amount for a share purchase within the stipulated time.
  2. Calls in advance involve a shareholder paying the due amount for a share purchase before the scheduled payment date.
  3. Companies may penalize shareholders for calls in arrears, while calls in advance can result in the company paying interest to the shareholder.
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Calls in Arrears vs Calls in Advance

Calls in arrears are the amount of money the shareholders need to pay and didn’t pay yet to meet their capital contribution obligations. Calls in advance are the money amount the shareholders of the company already paid in instalments before it is due.

Comparison Table

Parameter of ComparisonCalls in arrearsCalls in advance
Balance sheetIt is debitedIt is debited
Interest rate10%12%
InstallmentAfter a company callsBefore a company calls
Action by CompanyForfeiture of sharesAdjusted when a call comes
State of the moneyOwes the companyOwed by the company

What are Calls in Arrears?

When a shareholder is applying for shares in a company, the company will make a legitimate offer, and when it approves the application and gives these shares to the applicant, it turns out as a legal contract between the two parties.

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Thereafter, the shareholder is expected to pay the amount of money that he or she owes the company when it calls for payment. In the case where the shareholder fails to pay the money at the expected prescribed time, it may lead to the forfeiture of shares.

Therefore, the company will deduct calls in arrears from the called-up capital to determine the amount of capital that has been paid up.

As per Table F of the companies act 2013, calls in arrears interest rate is 10% of the total and is expected to be paid at the time the company makes a call.

Therefore, calls in arrears are the amount of money a shareholder fails to pay a company at a time when it has already made a call. This might lead to the termination of shares by the company.

When a company does not maintain separate calls of arrears account, the amount of money the shareholder owes the company appears as notes to the accounts.

It is an asset to a company as it is the amount a shareholder owes the company but fails to pay at the time of the call.

What are Calls in Advance?

This is the excess amount of money paid by a shareholder to a company as part of his or her shares before a call for payment.

This money acts as security to the shareholder because, at the time when the company calls for payment, the excess amount will be adjusted towards the payment.

It is termed as a liability to a company. It is therefore credited on the left side of the balance sheet.

As per Table F of the Companies Act 2013, calls in advance interest rates are 12% of the total and are expected to be adjusted when the company calls for payment.

There are no dividends on calls in advance to a shareholder as the company does not consider it part of the called-up capital.

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Furthermore, no extra voting rights are given to the shareholder as much as the shareholder pays before the company calls for payment.

Main Differences Between Calls in Arrears and Calls in Advance

  1. Calls in arrears are the amount of money a shareholder owes a company and fails to initiate payment at the time the company calls for payment, whereas calls in advance are the excess amount of money a shareholder pays a company before a company calls for payment.
  2. Calls in arrears are termed assets to a company, for it is the amount a shareholder owes the company, it is debited on the balance sheet. Conversely, calls in advance are termed liabilities to a company, which are therefore credited to the balance sheet.
  3. As per Table F, companies act 2013, the calls in arrears interest rate are 10% of the total, while on the other hand, calls in advance are 12% of the total.
  4. Calls in arrears are the amount of money that failed to be paid after a company has called for payment, while calls in advance are paid before a company calls for payment and acts as security money to the shareholder.
  5. Calls in arrears are the amount of money a shareholder owes a company, whereas calls in advance are the excess amount of money a shareholder pays a company and, therefore the company owes them.

Last Updated : 14 October, 2023

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