It is vital for every living organism to derive and make use of energy for survival. This energy is obtained by breaking down sugars and then hoarding them in ATP.
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There are two major processes that lead to the formation of ATP. These include cellular respiration and fermentation.
Cellular Respiration vs Fermentation
The main difference between cellular respiration and fermentation is that in the process of cellular respiration, glucose is fully oxidized into carbon dioxide and water whereas the process of fermentation oxidizes glucose only partially while producing small organic molecules as waste. This means that cellular respiration discharges more energy than fermentation.
Cellular respiration is a survival process that takes place inside the cells of living organisms. Through its action, chemical energy derived from nutrients and oxygen molecules is converted into ATP.
This means that only a little ATP is created from chemical energy along with a larger amount of waste products. This waste includes lactic acid and ethanol.
Comparison Table Between Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
|Parameters of Comparison||Cellular Respiration||Fermentation|
|Oxidization||Cellular respiration fully oxidizes glucose to produce ATP.||Fermentation only oxidizes glucose partially, resulting in larger waste production.|
|Occurrence||Cellular respiration occurs in the cytoplasm as well as mitochondria.||Fermentation occurs only in the cytoplasm.|
|Production||Through cellular respiration, around 36 ATPs are produced.||The process of fermentation only produces 2 ATPs.|
|Water||As a result of cellular respiration, water is produced as a by-product along with ATPs.||No water is produced during the process of fermentation in the cells.|
|Types||Cellular respiration is of two types – Aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration.||The process of fermentation can take place in two ways – Ethanol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation.|
|Organism||Cellular respiration takes place in higher organisms.||Fermentation takes place in microorganisms such as yeast.|
What is Cellular Respiration?
Cellular respiration is the process through which glucose is oxidized to form chemical energy, which is then converted into ATPs. Along with ATPs, lactic acid and ethanol are discharged as by-products.
Generally, plant and animal cells use nutrients such as sugar, amino acids, and fatty acids in the process of cellular respiration. Meanwhile, oxygen (O2) is most used as the oxidizing agent that leads to the discharge of chemical energy.
What is Fermentation?
Fermentation is another process by which ATPs are produced in living beings. However, this process takes place only in microorganisms such as yeast.
The process of fermentation takes place when there is a lack of oxygen intake in the cell. In such a case, pyruvic acid is not metabolized by cellular respiration, but by fermentation.
There are two types of fermentation processes that take place in microorganisms. These include ethanol fermentation and lactic acid fermentation. Fermentation oxidizes NADH to convert it into NAD+, which is then reused in glycolysis.
Main Differences Between Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
- Cellular respiration takes place in higher organisms while fermentation takes place only in microorganisms such as yeast.
- Oxygen is crucial in the process of cellular respiration whereas fermentation does not require oxygen.
Cellular respiration and fermentation are two processes that lead to the formation of ATPs in living organisms. However, while cellular respiration takes place in higher organisms, fermentation takes place only in microorganisms.
A major difference between the two is that cellular respiration oxidizes glucose fully while fermentation only oxidizes glucose partially.
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