Birds are considered to be the most free-spirited and self-subsistent creations of nature. They are warm-blooded animals belonging to the class of ‘Aves’ and are vertebrates.
Their size ranges from 2 cm hummingbirds to 2750 cm ostriches.
We come across very closely related bird species that are quite similar in appearance and can fail to identify the minute differences between them at first glance. One such example is that of a crane and a heron.
These two birds look astonishingly similar on the outside but have highly disparate flying styles, breeding patterns, nesting, and habitat.
- Cranes are large, long-legged birds with long necks and straight bills, found in wetlands and grasslands; herons are medium-to-large wading birds with long necks and dagger-like bills, found near water bodies.
- Cranes have a distinctive trumpeting call and are known for their elaborate courtship dances; herons have a more subdued call and are known for their stealthy hunting behaviour.
- Cranes are migratory birds with a wider global distribution; herons are non-migratory and are found in a more limited range of habitats.
Cranes vs. Herons
The difference between cranes and herons is that cranes belong to the family Gruidae and fly with their neck outstretched, whereas herons belong to the family Ardeidae and fly with their neck curved into an ‘S’ shape and pulled backward.
|Parameter of Comparison
|Cranes belong to the family Gruidae
|Herons belong to the family Ardeidae
|Cranes are large-sized, have a thinner beak, and fly with their neck stretched out. They exist in fewer color combinations.
|Herons are medium-sized birds with thicker beaks than cranes and fly with an ‘S’-shaped kink in their necks. They exist in more color combinations.
|Cranes have a well–developed vocal system with different calls for different purposes.
|Herons have a croaking call.
|Cranes lay 1 – 2 eggs at a time and have a sub-adult period of 3 to 8 years.
|Herons lay 3 to 7 eggs at a time and have a very short breeding time of 1 – 2 years.
|Cranes are omnivores whose diet ranges from small rodents and insects to berries and grass.
|Herons are carnivores and eat aquatic animals like fish, reptiles, and insects found in or near water.
|Cranes nest in wetlands on the ground and have a solitary nesting pattern. They do not perch on trees.
|Herons perch on trees, have a colonial nesting pattern, and have their habitat in low–laying wetlands
|The cranes go to grasslands or deserts for feeding, and the parent cranes take their chicks to the feeding grounds.
|The herons consume aquatic food found in or near water, and the parent herons bring food to their chicks.
|They are found in all continents except for South America and Antarctica
|They are found in all continents except for Antarctica
|These come under the ‘threatened’ species due to human activities
|These are not listed as endangered species.
What are Cranes?
Cranes are large, high–necked, wading birds of the family Gruidae and order Gruiformes and exist in three genera subdivided into 15 species. They can be found on all continents except Antarctica and South America.
They occupy a position among the tallest flying birds across the globe.
Their long neck is outstretched during their flight, and their legs trail out behind them. They are omnivorous, and their diet primarily consists of rodents, fish, other small animals, grains, berries, and grass shoots.
The parent cranes take their chicks to the feeding grounds in dry areas.
Most species of cranes nest in wetlands and sometimes in grasslands or even deserts. Cranes are monogamous and lay 1 – 2 eggs at a time.
They have a large dialect consisting of specialized calls for maintaining eye contact with their parents, food–begging calls, alarm calls, flight intention calls, and duet calls.
Different varieties of cranes include the Sandhill crane, Crowned crane, Wattled crane, Brogla, and Demoiselle crane. Today, most crane species are profoundly a victim of human activities, based on which they are classified as ‘threatened,’ if their plight is worsened, they may as well become a part of the ‘critically endangered’ species.
What are Herons?
Herons are long-legged wading birds with soft plumage and large wings belonging to the family Ardeidae and have long necks that can be curved into an ‘S’ shape. They are found on all continents except for Antarctica.
These birds are partially migratory, mainly found in the lowlands, and are consorted with water and wetlands. They are carnivorous and feed on live aquatic animals like fish, reptiles, amphibians, and insects.
The parent herons bring food to the baby chicks, unlike the cranes.
Their nesting pattern is colonial, and they mainly perch on trees. They have a croaking call and lay 3 – 7 eggs simultaneously.
Various types of herons include the Grey heron, Agami heron, Boat-billed heron, Pacific Reef Heron, and Goliath heron.
Major Differences Between Crane and Heron
- Cranes and herons belong to two different families, Gruidae and Ardeidae, respectively.
- Cranes are one of the largest flying birds, whereas herons are medium-sized.
- Cranes fly with an outstretched neck, while herons fly with an ‘S-shaped, curved neck.
- Cranes have thinner beaks and exist in fewer color combinations than herons.
- Cranes have a very highly developed vocal system and a large vocabulary, due to which they can produce different sounds for different purposes, whereas herons have a croaking voice.
- Cranes lay 1 – 2 eggs simultaneously, and breeding takes 3 to 8 years. On the other hand, herons lay 3 to 7 eggs at a time and take just 1 – 2 years to breed.
- Cranes are omnivorous and consume small animals and berries or grasses, but herons are carnivores and mostly feed on aquatic animals.
- Cranes have a solitary nesting pattern and do not perch on trees, in contradiction to herons, who have a colonial nesting pattern and perch on trees.
- Cranes take their chicks to the feeding grounds, whereas herons bring food for their chicks.
- Cranes are not found in South America, unlike herons that are present there.
- Cranes are listed as threatened species, but herons are not endangered.
Last Updated : 11 June, 2023
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.