Difference Between Etruscans and Romans

Have you wondered how human civilization began with so many people on this planet?. Normally, a new civilization begins from the previous one.


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According to history, the Etruscan civilization was the highest in Italy and came before Rome was risen, due to which Romans were highly influenced by the Etruscans and shared some similarities and yet differed distinctly.

Etruscans v/s Romans

The difference between Etruscans and Romans is that Etruscans are the people that come from the Etrurian part of the Italian peninsula and their culture was known for its rich mineral resources whereas, Romans are the people that are originated from the time city in Italy’s modern-day and we’re known for conquering huge territories.

Etruscans vs Romans

Etruscans are a member of the ancient people of Etruria, Italy, that is situated between the Tiger and the rivers of Arno, which is on the west and south of the Apennines, whose civilization attained great height in the 6th Century BC.

Several characteristics of Etruscan culture were acquired by the Romans.

The Romans are the population that is originated from Rome city in Italy. Rome was known as the central part of the Roman Empire, which was the area controlled and managed by the Romans.

This area includes the part of Europe i.e. France, Greece, and Spain, and the northern and middle eastern part of Africa.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonEtruscansRomans
Known forEtruscans were known for their rich mineral resources.Romans were known for being great builders and civil engineers.
What makes their art uniqueFigures with egg-shaped heads, almond eyes, clothes, and a higher degree of the plastic body.Romans have their limited artistic language.
SarcophagiThe sarcophagi portrays the image of revelry.The sarcophagi portray the mythological images of Greek and Roman.
InventionThey invented the tradition of placing images on lids.They invented concrete, calendar, and underfloor heating.
DominationThe northern region of Italy.Middle region of Italy.

What are Etruscans?

The Etruscans are the people living in the Etrurian region of Italy’s peninsula. The Greeks knew them as the Tyrrhenians.

The Etruscans were at their highest peak from 5th to 8th century BC in Italy, and were the rivals of the Greeks.

Their language was not similar to the languages like Greek and the other Mediterranean, and their characteristics were also different than making the Greeks wonder about the origin of Etruscans.

Their origin has always been a topic of debate since ancient times.

For example, Herodotus debated that the Etruscans are descended from an individual who conquered Etruria before 800 BCE and built themselves above the indigenous Iron Age population of the area whereas, Dionysus of Halicarnassus assumed they were the locals of Italy.

In the middle of the 7th century BCE, the main towns of Etruscans were found.

Before arriving at the Arno river in the northern region and including all the regions of Tuscany in their control, they initially initiated a series of conquest.

The expansion of Etrurian culture in the southern and eastern region was restricted at the Tiber river by the powerful people of Italic Umbrian.

By the emergence of the 6th century BCE, the Etruscans conquered Fiesole and Volterra and begin to approach the southward into Campania and Capua evolved as the main foundation of the Etruscans in that area.

What are Romans?

The Romans are the population that is derived from the Rome city in modern-day Italy. Rome was the capital or center of the Roman Empire.

]In the 8th century BC, Ancient Rome expanded from a small city at the Tiber river into a kingdom that at its highest covered most of the parts of Europe, Great Brittan, the Western part of Asia, northern Africa, and many Mediterranean islands.

Under several legacies of Roman dominance, Christianity emerged as the world’s major religion. After being a republic for 450 years, Rome emerged as an empire in the rise of Julius Caesar and fall during the 1st century BC.

The vast and glorious reign of Augustus, the first emperor, became the blossom of peace and prosperity.

On the contrary, the Roman Empire descended in the 5th century AD, which was one of the most dramatic descending in human civilization’s history.

Roman-era as a kingdom ended in 509 BC with the defeat of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the seventh king, who was portrayed as wicked and cruel by antiquated historians, compared to his kind predecessors.

Rome crumbled down eventually by the weight of its suffocated empire and lost all its provinces one by one.

After the deposition of the last emperor, Odovacar’s soldiers declared him the king of Italy and brought dishonored end to the long glorious history of the Roman Empire.

Main Differences Between Etruscans and Romans

  1. Etruscans dominated the northern region of Italy whereas the Romans dominated the middle region of Italy.
  2. Etruscans used Etruscan as their official language whereas, Latin was used by the Romans as their official language.
  3. Etruscans were well known for their rich mineral resources whereas Romans were known for their great architecture and culture that remains unbeaten.
  4. Etruscan art depicts the scenery of revelry whereas Roman art depicts the Greeks and Romans mythology.
  5. The custom of drawing figures on the lids was created by the Etruscans whereas Romans created calendars and concrete which is used till now.
  6. The Etruscans were first seen in the 8th to 5th Century BC whereas, Romans were seen in 753 BC.


  1. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-roman-studies/article/roman-triumphs-and-etruscan-kings-the-changing-face-of-the-triumph/5AC226E5965E3F6BBBCC6B7E984837BA
  2. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4238630
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