Difference Between ITP And TTP

ITP and TTP are both blood disorders in which the normal function of blood is affected. There are many types of blood disorders related to the blood components. Both of these disorders involve the platelet count of the blood and so have some common symptoms. Therefore are confused although there are differences in the causes and treatment.

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ITP vs TTP

The difference between ITP and TTP is that ITP is a disorder in which the blood fails to clot while TTP is a disorder in which there is too much formation of blood clots which leads to the overuse of platelets. In ITP the immune system destroys the platelets inappropriately. In TTP, due to the spontaneous platelet aggregation, the small blood vessels clots.

ITP vs TTP

ITP is an autoimmune disorder. The immune system destroys the platelets which help in blood clotting and prevent bleeding. Since there are not enough platelets the blood will not clot, instead, it will leak from the small blood vessels, and losing too much blood is harmful to the human body.

TTP is a disorder in which the platelets are overused and many blood clots are formed. These clots can interfere with the proper flow of blood in the body, also this can compromise the proper blood flow to the vital organs f the body.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonITPTTP
Stands For?Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
DefinitionITP is a blood disorder in which the platelets are destroyed inappropriately by the immune system of the body.TTP is a disorder in which the blood clots which are formed are more than necessary, and can interfere with the blood flow in the body.
CauseThe exact cause is unknown.Spontaneous platelet aggregation is the main cause.
ComplicationsCatastrophic Bleeding.Organ Failure.
TreatmentOral Steroids and intravenous infusion of immunoglobulins.Blood replacement therapy or Plasma exchange.

What is ITP?

ITP stands for Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. ITP is a blood disorder in which the platelets are destroyed inappropriately by the immune system of the body. And because of the fewer platelets which help in blood clotting, enough blood clots do not form. The clotting of blood fails to happen. This leads to excessive bleeding which is harmful to the body.

The symptoms of this disorder are easy bruising, frequent nosebleeds, Bleeding in gums, blood blisters in the mouth, fatigue, Petechiae, heavy menstrual cycle, blood in vomit or urine, etc. The cause of this disorder is not known exactly. Though it is considered that the formation of antibodies by the immune system to fight off some other foreign bacteria can lead to the formation of antibodies which destroys the formation of platelets.

The disorder is not life-threatening though if not treated properly it can be very harmful. The platelet count below 20,000 per µl is considered poor. It means treatment is required immediately. Uncontrolled bleeding is the main complication of this disorder which can also lead to Catastrophic bleeding in the brain.

The disorder cannot be cured fully however it can be controlled via medication. Medicines like oral steroids’, and antibodies infusions are the first steps of the medication. In rare and severe cases, Chemotherapy medications are also used.

What is TTP?

TTP stands for Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. TTP is a disorder in which excessive blood clots are formed. The platelets cause clots to develop in small blood vessels, which are more than required by the body. This leads to the overuse of the platelets. These blood clots are more in number than required so they can interfere with the normal flow of blood in the body. These blood clots can stop the blood to flow to the organs properly which can lead to the failure of the organs.

The cause of this is spontaneous platelet aggregation. Also, the cause can be the deficiency of an enzyme called ADAMTS13. The lack of this enzyme causes the excessive clotting of blood. The symptoms of this disorder are bruising easily, bleeding in gums, nausea, fatigue, heavy menstrual cycles, seizures, blood in urine, kidney failure, anemia, abdominal pain, etc.

The complications in this disorder are high. It can be life-threatening. Since the blood clots compromise the blood flow organ failure can happen. Organs like kidneys and liver can fail. Therefore, proper treatment is required. Medications like steroids are given though plasma exchange is prioritized.

Plasma exchange is a process in which a machine is used to filter the blood of the affected person. The antibodies which cause the disorder are removed, the healthy blood components are returned to the body along with transfusing a healthy plasma.

Main Differences Between ITP and TTP

  1. ITP stands for Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. TTP stands for Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
  2. ITP is a disorder in which platelets are destroyed and so blood clots do not form enough. In TTP, the blood clots which are formed are more than necessary.
  3. The cause of ITP is not known exactly though it can be due to the development of antibodies that the immune system developed to fight off other bacteria. The cause of TTP is spontaneous platelet aggregation and a deficiency in an enzyme called ADAMTS13. 
  4. The main complication of ITP is not often life-threatening though excessive blood flow can be harmful. The complication of TTP can be life-threatening as it can lead to organ failure.
  5. The treatment of ITP is medications like oral steroids’, antibodies infusions, and surgical removal of the spleen. The treatment of TTP is blood replacement therapy or plasma exchange.

References

  1. https://ashpublications.org/blood/article-abstract/125/10/1514/33751
  2. https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE%7CA649545541&sid=googleScholar&v=2.1&it=r&linkaccess=abs&issn=11193077&p=HRCA&sw=w
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