Everything around us is energy. Energy is functionary and the basis of functioning as well.
Energy lays the capabilities of a thing, object or person to carry out work. There are various forms of energy.
Two such energies are Kinetic energy and potential energy.
Kinetic energy is determined by calculating the speed, velocity or mass of an object while it is moving. Potential energy is calculated by using the mass, gravity, height, and distance of an object.
- Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
- Potential energy is the energy that an object has due to its position or state.
- Kinetic energy is dependent on the mass and velocity of an object, while potential energy is dependent on the height or position of an object.
Kinetic Energy vs Potential Energy
The difference between kinetic energy and potential energy is that energies can be transferred between objects with regard to kinetic energy, and the same cannot occur for potential energy.
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Supporting with explanation, the critical difference between kinetic energy is that it considers the energy of objects in motion, and potential energy is the energy that an object has due to its positioning relative to other objects in the surroundings.
|Parameters of comparison||Kinetic Energy||Potential Energy|
|Meaning||The energy of an object in motion||Stored energy in an object|
|Environment||Related to other objects||Not related to the environment|
|Factors||Velocity( speed) and Mass||Mass and Height/distance|
What is Kinetic Energy?
Any object that is in motion, irrespective if it is in motion horizontally or vertically, does possess kinetic energy. Kinetic energy comes in forms such as translation energy, rotation energy, and vibration energy.
Kinetic energy is increased when an object is in motion and is maintained until the moving object changes its speed.
Also, kinetic energy is dependent on the other objects in close proximity as well. Kinetic energy is translational, rotational, vibration, and translation kinetic energy.
For example, a moving car, dropping off a pen from the table, swinging pendulum, etc
What is Potential Energy?
Potential energy is found in every object that has mass, gravity, and velocity within the dimension of a field. Potential energy is a stored form of energy found in an object when it is at rest.
Potential energy has three main characteristics.
One is the shape of the object at rest; the second is the position of that object, and the third is the potential the object has to transform into kinetic energy.
Potential energy facts can be elastic, nuclear, gravitational and chemical energy.
For Example, A water bottle on a table or a ball on a table are forms of potential energy. If the ball or water bottle falls from the table, the potential energy transforms into Kinetic energy.
Main Differences Between Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
Kinetic energy is the type of energy which a body possesses by the property of being in motion. Potential energy is the type of energy which a body possesses by virtue of its position, which is known as potential energy.
Example: A yo-yo ball has potential energy when not in motion. But when touched, its moves, The momentum that the yo-yo ball is the kinetic energy at its highest movement.
When the yoyo balls slow down, it is slowly returning to their potential energy.
Taking the above yo-yo ball example, it doesn’t matter where the yo-yo ball is. It can be anywhere and yet have its potential energy at the state of rest.
The ball can be in the cupboard, ground, and ceiling or on the top of a car. It will still have the same energy.
But in order for it to move, one needs a proper space and environment.
Light, air, and motion are needed. Hand, wind, strength or skill is needed.
A proper environment is needed to fuel motion in its kinetic state, but it is not the same for potential energy. Potential energy is non-relative to the environment.
For example, a tree branch has the potential energy to stay strong or fall. It’s the environment that would decide whether the branch would fall or not.
The soil strength, wind, rainfall, plantation, etc., would be the environmental factors.
Taking an example, let’s say we have a ball in our hands. When the ball is swinging at the highest point in the motion, kinetic energy transforms into potential energy by virtue of its height and its mass in correspondence to the state of the rest of that particular ball.
Taking another example, a waterfall has both the form of energy at the top of the waterfall; the water is potential energy though it does have the weight and mass of water. That water at the top of the waterfall is not called a waterfall.
Only when that lump of water flows does that potential energy translate to kinetic energy. But, potential energy cannot be transferred.
It can only be converted to kinetic energy
Factors affecting kinetic energy are mass and speed. The speed is crucial for kinetic energy to be tapped and understood and depends on an object’s mass.
The formula of Kinetic energy, i.e. Written as K. E, is. M is mass, and V is the velocity or speed of the object.
The formula of Kinetic energy – KE= (1/2) mv2
The factor that affects potential energy is, for sure, mass. Mass by itself is energy.
The object’s mass is very important, but as potential energy is calculated at the state of rest, the dimension, height and distance of its kinetics are based on the force of gravity.
M means Mass, G means Gravity, and H means height.
The formula of potential energy is W = m×g×h = mgh
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Piyush Yadav has spent the past 25 years working as a physicist in the local community. He is a physicist passionate about making science more accessible to our readers. He holds a BSc in Natural Sciences and Post Graduate Diploma in Environmental Science. You can read more about him on his bio page.