Difference Between Malaria and Dengue

Health is the foundation for a thriving and healthy lifestyle, as having a fit body and mind improves enjoyment and productivity. There are numerous disorders affecting our health these days that have a direct impact on our daily lives. Here’s the difference between malaria and dengue, two big public-health risks around the world.

Malaria Vs Dengue

The main difference between malaria and dengue is that malaria is a life-threatening (yet preventable and curable) disease caused by a single-celled parasite called Plasmodium that is transmitted through the bites of infected anopheles mosquitoes, whereas dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease transmitted by female mosquitoes, specifically the bite of an Aedes aegypti mosquito.

Malaria Vs Dengue

Malaria is transmitted by a mosquito vector and has just a single mode of transmission. Anopheles mosquitoes are the mosquitoes that carry malaria. Between sunset and sunrise, the species ought to be active in order to infect malaria. Despite the fact that malaria is curable and preventative, it is difficult to trace the parasite’s entry and stay in the body, which may lie dormant for a long time.

Dengue fever is a viral infection spread by female mosquitoes, specifically Aedes aegypti. The dengue virus usually causes a mild flu-like disease, but it can occasionally progress to dengue hemorrhagic fever, a potentially fatal condition. Dengue fever causes a drop in the platelet count and white blood cell count. Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne disease with a single route of transmission.

Comparison Table Between Malaria and Dengue

Parameters of ComparisonMalariaDengue
MeaningMalaria is spread via mosquito bites from female anopheles mosquitos.Dengue fever is spread via a bite from an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito.
Latency PeriodMalaria symptoms appear ten to fifteen days after being struck by a mosquito.Dengue fever takes three to fourteen days to develop after being struck by an infected mosquito.
Mode of TransmissionMalaria is spread by infected needles, transfusion, and mosquito vectors.The sole known mechanism of transmission of dengue fever is through the bite of an Aedes aegypti mosquito.
SymptomsChills, vomiting, fevers, sweating, fainting, and a dry cough are all signs of malaria.Dengue fever symptoms include headache, loss of appetite, burning eyes, sudden fever, and rashes on the upper and lower limbs.
DiagnosisMalaria is detected by examining the virus’s visuals under a microscope.An antigen and anti-body test are used to diagnose dengue fever.

What Is Malaria?

After getting bitten by a female anopheles mosquito, people get infected with malaria while the peak biting period when these mosquitos are observed to be active is between sunrise and sunset. The malaria vectors are more dangerous in comparison to other species that feed on animals as they feed on humans.

Malaria is exclusively transmitted by female anopheles mosquitos since their egg production is dependent on blood meals. When an infected female Anopheles mosquito bites a non-infected person, the parasite plasmodium is injected into the human body through the salivary glands, where it matures and begins its life cycle.

At first, the malaria parasite plasmodium replicates in the liver. Once the parasite’s life span reaches the blood stage, where it begins to impact red blood cells, clinical signs occur in the host body. The latency period lasts between 7 to 30 days.

Malaria is preventable and treatable. However, it can be difficult to detect because the parasite can invade and remain dormant for long periods of time. Because it is a tropical condition, fever-like signs such as the ones listed below are common. Chills or a shivering sensation, nausea and vomiting, headaches, muscle and joint problems, rapid breathing and heart rate. 

Diagnostic tests, such as blood testing, are used to check for potential problems. A malaria vaccine is offered along with prescribed medications to kill the parasite. These measures can assist in lessening the severity of malaria, which can be life-threatening.

What Is Dengue?

The dengue virus (DENV) causes the sickness, which is carried by the Aedes mosquito. After being bitten by an infected Aedes mosquito, a human gets viremia, which is a condition in which the blood contains a higher level of dengue virus. During this time, the virus replicates in the mosquito while it feeds on the blood of an infected human.

After becoming infected, the mosquito can transmit the virus to non-infected humans by bite for up to a month, continuing the cycle. Dengue fever can range from mild to severe flu-like symptoms.Dengue fever has a shorter time between the bite and the onset of symptoms, lasting from 4 to 10 days. Currently, there are four dengue virus variants that can infect humans.

Dengue fever has no specific treatment because it is a viral infection. Medication such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen might well be administered for symptoms such as fever, aches, and pains. If any warning signs develop, get medical attention right away.

The disease is divided into two categories by the WHO: dengue (with or without symptoms) and severe dengue. People have zero to mild symptoms during the outset of dengue fever. When a person is in the feverish stage, with a temperature of 40°C or above, symptoms such as rashes, glands swollen, vomiting, pains and aches, as well as severe headaches, should be closely monitored.

Main Differences Between Malaria and Dengue

  1. Malaria is transmitted by female anopheles mosquito bites, whereas dengue fever is transmitted by a bite from an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito.
  2. Malaria symptoms arise ten to fifteen days after being bitten by a mosquito, whereas dengue fever symptoms appear three to fourteen days following a mosquito bite.
  3. Infected needles, blood transfusions, and mosquito vectors are all ways for malaria to spread, whereas dengue fever is only known to be transmitted through the bite of an Aedes aegypti mosquito.
  4. Malaria symptoms include chills, vomiting, fevers, sweating, fainting, and a dry cough, whereas Dengue fever symptoms include headache, lack of appetite, burning eyes, high fever, and rashes on the upper and lower limbs.
  5. Malaria is diagnosed by looking at the virus’s images under a microscope, but dengue fever is diagnosed by using an antigen and anti-body test.

Conclusion

Malaria and dengue fever are serious public health concerns around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 100 to 400 million dengue illnesses occur each year, putting half of the globe’s population at risk. Furthermore, according to the World Health Organization’s most recent data, there were approximately 229 million cases of malaria worldwide. 

There are a few similarities between dengue and malaria, such as the fact that both are spread by mosquitoes and cause thousands of fatalities each year around the world.

The majority of people overcome malaria and dengue fever by taking recommended medications and resting completely. Living in unsanitary neighbourhoods, tropical weather, and having previous contact with the virus are all major risk factors that must be avoided at all costs, particularly throughout the monsoons. Keep your food and water covered at all times, use insect repellents or nets, and keep yourself clean and sanitised at all times.

References

  1. http://mrcindia.org/journal/issues/494262.pdf
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2221169111600531
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