If you are a research fellow, you know the importance of data. Data can be found in various forms and from various places. Depending on the source, data can be categorized into two broader categories, namely primary data and secondary data.
The distinction is necessary as it helps the user to choose wisely.
- Primary data is collected directly from the source, while secondary data is obtained from pre-existing sources.
- Collecting primary data allows for tailored research design and control over data quality, whereas secondary data saves time and resources.
- Primary data may be more relevant and accurate, but secondary data can offer a broader perspective or historical context.
Primary Data vs Secondary Data
Primary data refers to data that is collected directly from the source through surveys, experiments, or observations. This data is original and has not been previously collected or analyzed. Secondary data refers to data that has already been collected and analyzed by someone else.
Primary data is the purest form of data that is obtained using various methods such as societal interviews, experiments, etc. The main purpose of this type of data is to suit a certain design.
It is used to bring conclusions about a specific task at hand. It can be further distributed to other users, and then it turns into secondary data.
Secondary data is data that is readily available and is free or costs a little when compared to primary data. This data type is unreliable as it may be a manipulated form of the original data.
If a person wants to use the data for research purposes, they must verify it from the original source.
|Parameters of Comparison
|It is the crude form of all the data.
|It is a refined form of data.
|It can be collected using various methods like interviews, experiments, etc.
|It can be obtained from the internet, journals, etc.
|It is very authentic in relation to the topic concerned.
|It may be biased. It depends on the biases of the researcher.
|Cost of collection
|It is very costly to collect such data.
|It costs very little or nothing.
|The primary purpose of the data is to add new knowledge.
|It is a manipulated form of data and just tells the same story from a different perspective.
What is Primary Data?
Society at large needs new ideas to progress. To ensure new ideas, people constantly look for ideas that lead them to experiments, interviews, qualitative research, etc.
It results in the addition of new knowledge to the world. Such contributions are called primary data.
This type of data helps us execute a particular task at hand. It uses many systematic ways to collect data that suit a particular context. It can then be represented in different forms so that the readability of the data increases.
It is categorized into two broader categories, namely quantitative and qualitative. Government records, passive observations, and different types of surveys fall under the quantitative category.
Active observations, open interviews, etc., fall under the category of qualitative data.
These types of data are documented and archived with all the details of the procedure used to acquire the data. Statistics agencies collect them as they are the bodies that conduct surveys to obtain a particular type of data.
The drawback of these types of data is that they are developed in a laboratory environment. This is precisely the reason why it cannot be relied upon heavily. The researcher may manipulate one or two variables involved to effect desired change which may not be according to the real world.
What is Secondary Data?
Secondary data is the refined form of primary data. It is biased and can be used for general purposes. But when it comes to its usage in an experiment, its root must be investigated.
The different forms of data that can be obtained on the internet, which are freely available, are the interpretation of the primary data.
It is a form of manipulation to fit particular rhetoric. It, however doesn’t mean that it always intends to harm or spread propaganda. The purpose of this type of data could be to reanalyze the information that exists already.
It can be obtained from archives for research purposes, and then it can be restructured into different languages.
The main purpose of such data is to make crude data understandable and available to normal people, who can then read it to get the information.
The method used to obtain such data is simple enough, but care must be taken while attempting a search for such data.
Generally, we rely on internet browsers to get the information. It, however leads to inadequate information as a single browser does not cover all the internet.
In such cases, we can use a metasearch program that sends requests to a bunch of browsers and then sorts out relevant data. It then presents a list of relevant data.
Main Differences Between Primary Data and Secondary Data
- The nature of primary data is objective, whereas secondary data is subjective and depends on the context.
- Primary data adds a piece of new information to the world, whereas secondary data adds nothing but gives another perspective on the existing data.
- Secondary data can be manipulative, and so can primary data, but primary data can be questioned as the method used and the source is readily available.
- Primary data can be sold, whereas secondary data is freely available or costs a little.
- Primary data is the best form of data to conduct research, whereas secondary data can sometimes be unreliable as its source cannot be found.
Last Updated : 14 June, 2023
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Sandeep Bhandari holds a Bachelor of Engineering in Computers from Thapar University (2006). He has 20 years of experience in the technology field. He has a keen interest in various technical fields, including database systems, computer networks, and programming. You can read more about him on his bio page.