Difference Between Rutile Titanium Dioxide and Anatase Titanium Dioxide

The rutile titanium dioxide and anatase titanium dioxide are two different sub-class under titanium dioxide. The subclass is often get confused by its terms.

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Rutile and Anatase are two different forms of minerals having more amount of titanium dioxide. Titanium dioxide is mineral-rich and is present majorly in igneous rocks.

Rutile Titanium Dioxide vs Anatase Titanium Dioxide

The difference between Rutile Titanium Dioxide and Anatase Titanium Dioxide is their color. The rutile titanium dioxide is red, and the anatase titanium dioxide is blue. They have different optical activities. The optical activity is positive for rutile titanium dioxide, whereas the optical activity is negative for anatase titanium dioxide.

Rutile Titanium Dioxide vs Anatase Titanium

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An oxide mineral mainly composed of titanium dioxide is called rutile titanium dioxide. Rutile is the most common form of titanium dioxide. At visible length, a greater refractive index is available in rutile titanium dioxide.

It shows high dispersion with birefringence in any type of crystal. Rutile titanium dioxide is used for optics for longer visible infrared wavelengths.

It is primarily used in the polarization of the optics. It works up to 4.5 micrometers.

A 10% iron is present in the natural rutile.

A titanium dioxide which is in the form of the metastable mineral is called anatase titanium dioxide. A black solid in the natural mineral form of the anatase titanium dioxide.

The pure material of the anatase titanium dioxide is white or colorless. Sharply developed crystals are the source of anatase titanium dioxide.

It is present in a small amount in those crystals.
At all the temperatures and pressures, anatase titanium dioxide is metastable.

It acts as an equilibrium polymorph when reacting with rutile titanium dioxide.

Comparison Table

Parameters of comparisonRutile Titanium DioxideAnatase Titanium Dioxide
AvailabilityRutile titanium dioxide present in a large amountAnatase titanium dioxide is present in a small amount
Ultraviolet absorptionRutile titanium dioxide absorbs more amount of ultraviolet raysAnatase titanium dioxide absorbs a fewer amount of ultraviolet rays
HardnessRutile titanium dioxide have greater hardnessAnatase titanium dioxide is less hardness
DensityRutile titanium dioxide has a greater densityAnatase titanium dioxide has less density
Reflex indexThe refractive index of rutile titanium dioxide is 2.52The refractive index of anatase titanium dioxide is 2.71

What is Rutile Titanium Dioxide?

An oxide mineral mainly composed of titanium dioxide is called rutile titanium dioxide. Rutile is the most common form of titanium dioxide.

At visible length, a greater refractive index is available in rutile titanium dioxide. It shows high dispersion with birefringence in any type of crystal.

Rutile titanium dioxide is used for optics for longer visible infrared wavelengths. It is primarily used in the polarization of the optics.

It works up to 4.5 micrometers. A 10% iron is present in the natural rutile.

The term ‘Rutile’ is taken from the Latin word ‘rutilus’. It means deep red color. In 1803, Rutile was first discovered by Abraham Gottlob Werner.

It is present in igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks. It can accommodate high temperatures and high pressure.

In titanium dioxide, rutile is the stable polymorph by thermodynamics. During those times, rutile exhibits low energy.

The transformation of rutile titanium dioxide into rutile is irreversible.

The tetragonal unit cell is the shape of the rutile. The parameters of units are 4.584 degrees.

It has six oxygen atoms called octahedrons. The octahedron shape of the rutile makes its screw axis sequentially.

Nanorods and abnormal grain are the growth of rutile in the c-axis. Fe, Nb, Ta are the common impurities of the rutile titanium dioxide.

The rutile titanium dioxide is insoluble in acids. It has strong dispersion.

It has the capability to fusible in alkalies.

What is Anatase Titanium Dioxide?

A titanium dioxide which is in the form of the metastable mineral is called anatase titanium dioxide. A black solid in the natural mineral form of the anatase titanium dioxide.

The pure material of the anatase titanium dioxide is white or colorless. Sharply developed crystals are the source of anatase.

It is present in a small amount in those crystals. At all the temperatures and pressures, anatase is metastable.

It acts as an equilibrium polymorph when reacting with rutile titanium dioxide.

Because of its lower surface energy, anatase is used in many processes and phases. At some elevated temperatures, anatase titanium dioxide transformed into rutile.

The anatase titanium dioxide has perfect cleavages in the angle 82°9′ which is parallel to the faces of the mineral. It is a common pyramid of anatase titanium dioxide.

The word anatase is from the Greek word anatasis. The word anatasis means extension. It is named by Rene Just Hauy in 1801.

In nature, anatase titanium dioxide has negative optics. The strong adamantine or metallic adamantine are the features of anatase titanium dioxide which are different from rutile.

Under ultraviolet radiations, titanium dioxide shows antifogging characters and self-cleaning properties. Tetragonal is the crystal system, and Ditetragonal dipyramidal is the crystal class of the anatase titanium dioxide.

Main Differences Between Rutile Titanium Dioxide and Anatase Titanium Dioxide

  1. 2.52 is the refractive index of rutile, whereas 2.71 is the refractive index of anatase.
  2. The density is high in rutile, whereas the density is low in anatase.
  3. The hardness character is high in rutile but low in anatase.
  4. Rutile absorbs more amount of ultraviolet rays, but Anatase absorbs a fewer amount of ultraviolet rays.
  5. Rutile is present in a large amount, but Anatase is present in a small amount.
References
  1. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1143/JJAP.39.L847/meta
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022369708000413
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