Difference Between Utopia and Dystopia (With Table)

The terms utopia and dystopia are related to fiction and literature. The term utopia was coined by Sir Thomas More in his 1516 book named “Utopia”. The words act as each other’s antonym. Both the terms and their characteristics have been used in fiction many times and have proven their acceptability.

Utopia vs Dystopia

The difference between Utopia and dystopia is that Utopia is when the society is in an ideal and perfect state, and dystopia is the complete opposite of Utopia, which is when the condition of the society is extremely unpleasant and chaotic. Both of these societies are imaginary.

Utopia is the ideal state of society, where no distress prevails. Society there is full of prospects and opportunities, and no one is unhappy or hopeless there. Utopian society possesses almost perfect qualities for its citizens. In his book “Utopia”, Thomas More describes a fictional island and its rules and lifestyle.

Dystopia is the opposite of Utopia, where everything is chaotic and disordered, nothing is good there, and it is not desirable at all. Dystopia shows the declination of society. Dystopia society is dehumanized, filled with tyrannical governments, and faces environmental disasters.

Comparison Table Between Utopia and Dystopia

Parameters of ComparisonUtopiaDystopia
Meaning Utopia is an imaginary society that is in perfect order.Dystopia is a society that is disoriented and chaotic.
CharacteristicUtopia is a peaceful land with disciplined citizens.The situation of dystopia is hostile and full of agitation. The commotion never lets anything set.
AllegoryUtopia is the presentation of paradise. Dystopia is the presentation of hell.
FeaturesUtopia is systematic, calm, clean, ordered, fair, and things happen smoothly there. Independent thought and freedom can be seen in a utopian society.Dystopia is the opposite state of utopia. It is imbalanced, chaotic, lawless, dirty, and violent. Propaganda is used to control the citizens of a dystopian society.
GovernmentUtopia is not controlled by constructed government systems.Dystopia is governed by a tyrannical government that keeps the citizens under constant surveillance.
EnvironmentUtopia shows a back-to-nature concept. They preserve nature and the natural world.Nature is destroyed in dystopia. A dystopian society is highly advanced in technology.

What is Utopia?

As noted above, Utopia is an imaginary society created by Thomas More is a perfectly harmonious society that is a highly desirable society to live in. Utopia is guided by communism. Money is abolished, and citizens do the work they enjoy.

Citizens are truly free in Utopia, possessing freedom of speech and thought. Power is proven to be corrupted, so society is not controlled by constructed government systems. The citizens are not treated as singular here. Utopia is a concept that brings the citizens together as a society, as a community.

Citizens are free from fear. They live with each other amiably. Harmony prevails in this society. Utopia believes in the back-to-nature concept. They preserve nature and the natural world.

When it comes to technology, they embrace few innovations of technology that uplift the lifestyle experience or that make work convenient. But a utopian society never depends completely on technology and its inventions. They believe technology is a monster that devours humanity.

Citizens of Utopia have a moralistic point of view. They live an honest life. They embrace and embody social ideals.

Some of the examples of utopian society can be seen in books like “Utopia” by Thomas More and “Gulliver’s Travels” by Jonathan Swift.

What is Dystopia?

As pointed out before, dystopia is anti-utopia. In fiction, we often see that a utopia transforms into a dystopia with passing days. Dystopia is in complete disarray. Nothing is good there. Government, people, everyone is corrupted. It is a living nightmare.

Citizens are not free here. They are under the control of a tyrannical government that keeps the citizens under constant surveillance. Citizens are frightened, and the situation is dreadful and horrible.

Dystopia features a capitalist society that is controlled by-products, media, and advertisements. Citizens’ every move and thought are under supervision, and they do not possess any bit of freedom.

Environmental disaster issues can also be seen here. Dystopia is often showed to be very advanced in technology. Some fictions show how scientific technology takes over humans. Humans stoop and become dehumanized. The natural world is destroyed in this illusion.

Few instances of a dystopian society in fiction are “1984” and “Animal Farm” by George Orwell and Ray Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451”.

Main Differences Between Utopia and Dystopia

  1. Utopia is an imaginary society that has perfect order and harmony, whereas dystopia is an anti-utopian illusion. Dystopia is completely chaotic.
  2. Utopia is a disciplined society. It symbolizes paradise. And on the other hand, dystopia lacks discipline completely. It symbolizes hell.
  3. People are independent in Utopia. They have freedom. But in dystopia, people are controlled by propaganda. They are not free. They are constantly under the government’s supervision.
  4. Utopia is a systematic society. It is not controlled by constructed government systems. Whereas dystopia is governed by a tyrannical government.
  5. In a utopia, citizens preserve nature, but in a dystopia, nature is destroyed. Humans become dehumanized in dystopia and are often shown to be led by robots and computers.


The utopian and dystopian worlds are literary terms. The words have been used, and the worlds have been presented many times in functions and films.

Utopia shows an ideal world that is fair and disciplined. People are bound to desire to live in such an ideal world. In contrast, a dystopian society arouses fear and worry. The dystopian community is frightened, trapped, and struggling to escape. The beautiful nature of Utopia turns into a heap of damaged, decayed materials.

In most cases, a utopia turns into a dystopia. Utopia is connected to nature, and dystopia is associated with progressive technology, which outruns the human race and enslaves them.


  1. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9781400834952.1/html
  2. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0435-3684.2002.00121.x
2D vs 3D