Abstraction vs Encapsulation: Difference and Comparison

Abstraction and Encapsulation are major concepts of Object-Oriented Programming. The term “Abstraction” is associated with the method of hiding unwanted data, and “Encapsulation” is associated with covering up data under a single unit.

In Abstraction, the focus lies on the functioning of the object. In Encapsulation, internal details and mechanics of object function are hidden.

Key Takeaways

  1. Abstraction is the process of hiding the complexity of a system by breaking it down into simpler, more manageable parts. At the same time, Encapsulation is the process of hiding the internal details of an object from the outside world.
  2. Abstraction is used to simplify complex systems, while Encapsulation protects the integrity of data and prevents it from being accessed or modified without permission.
  3. Abstraction is achieved through inheritance, interfaces, and abstract classes, while Encapsulation is achieved through access modifiers such as public, private, and protected.

Abstraction vs Encapsulation

Abstraction solves the problem at the Design level, while Encapsulation in the Implementation level. Data Abstraction hides the implementation details to reduce the code of complexity, while Encapsulation hides data for the purpose of data protection. First uses Interface, and the second, Access Modifiers.

Abstraction vs Encapsulation

The Abstraction function hides unnecessary information from the user. It selects data from a larger pool of information.

This function enables the selection and display of only relevant data to the object. It helps us decide which information needs to be visible and what needs to be hidden from the user.

The Encapsulation function processes the data and the code operating on it into a single unit. It can be assumed as a protective cover that stops random access to code.

It makes a complex system easier for users to understand and work on without worrying about the internal details and mechanics of the system.

Comparison Table

Parameters of ComparisonAbstraction Encapsulation
Functioning It is the process of gaining selective information from a larger data pool.It is the method of holding up data as a single entity.
Level of implementationThe problems get solved at the designing level or while the user is using the interface.The problems get solved when the code runs that is during the final level.
Ways of implementationAbstract classes and interfaces method is used to implement abstraction.It is implemented by using an access modifier by granting either private or public access.
Methods used to hide data Abstract classes and interfaces are used to hide implementation hurdles.The method of getters and setters is used to hide data.
Relation between the functionsThe objects that help in carrying abstraction forward are encapsulated. The objects performing encapsulation do not need to be abstracted.

What is Abstraction? 

In data abstraction, only essential details are visible to the user. The method of abstract classes and interfaces is used to implement abstraction.

Also Read:  iLife 08 vs iLife 09: Difference and Comparison

It selects data from a larger pool and then creates classes of similar types. Classes are created by encapsulation when similar information in the form of the same data type and functions is grouped.

The class has the freedom to decide which data function gets displayed to the user and which can not.

Access specifiers are used for implementing abstraction and enforcing restrictions on objects. Abstraction helps the user to create high-level codes, restricts code duplication, and extends the reusable criterion of the information. 

The relevant and selective showcasing of data to the public ensures the security of the application or program. The program functions can be altered and updated from our side without affecting the end user. 

Abstraction enables high-level programming and machine representation. 

The problems are reviewed and solved at the planning (designing) level and during the user interface interaction. In order to hide implementation hurdles, methods of abstract classes and interfaces are used.

The objects in code that are to be abstracted further are encapsulated. Abstraction focuses on knowing the function of the code and not on the logic applied. 

What is Encapsulation?

The processing of data and the code operating on it into a single unit is Encapsulation. The single unit contains data performing the same functions and hence is called a Class.

Using encapsulation, programs or applications are much easier to use and understand. The internal details and mechanics of the system need not be known to the user to operate on the code.

The access modifier is used in the system which decides to grant data access to the public or to a limited group of people for private use.

Also Read:  FTP vs TELNET: Difference and Comparison

In encapsulation, the data is enclosed and protected from the world like a capsule so that it does not get manipulated. 

It can be said that encapsulation is a kind of abstraction, but it is more security-specific about data hiding. It gets implemented during the final level and by the method of getters and setters.

This method allows others to read and modify the value of private members only if they have been granted access. 

The data members are labelled as private, public, or protected according to the range of access granted. By default, all data members and functions are made private by the compiler, but they can be changed using an access modifier. 

Main Differences Between Abstraction and Encapsulation 

  1. Abstraction is the process of gaining relevant and selective information from a larger data pool. Encapsulation is the method of holding up data as a single entity.
  2. In abstraction, the problems get solved at the designing level or during the user interface. In encapsulation, the problems get solved when the code runs, that is, during the final level.
  3. The method of abstract classes and interfaces is used to implement abstraction. Encapsulation is implemented by using an access modifier by granting either private or public access.
  4. Abstract classes and interfaces are used to hide implementation hurdles in abstraction, whereas encapsulation uses the method of getters and setters is used to hide data. 
  5. The objects that conduct abstraction are encapsulated, but encapsulating objects do not need to be abstracted.
References
  1. https://doi.org/10.1007/11535409_1
  2. https://doi.org/10.1145/2508075.2508091

Last Updated : 15 August, 2023

dot 1
One request?

I’ve put so much effort writing this blog post to provide value to you. It’ll be very helpful for me, if you consider sharing it on social media or with your friends/family. SHARING IS ♥️

25 thoughts on “Abstraction vs Encapsulation: Difference and Comparison”

  1. The relevance and selective showcasing of data through Abstraction not only ensures security but also allows for the alteration and updating of program functions without affecting the end user. It’s intriguing to see how Abstraction enables high-level programming and machine representation.

    Reply
    • Absolutely, Abstraction plays a critical role in simplifying the code and preventing duplication. It’s interesting to see how it focuses on the logic and function of the code rather than its implementation details.

      Reply
    • I agree, the benefits of Abstraction are quite remarkable. It’s a powerful concept that helps in creating high-level codes and extending the reusable criterion of information.

      Reply
  2. The comparison table provides a clear overview of the differences between Abstraction and Encapsulation, from their functioning to their level of implementation. It’s great to see how these two concepts are distinct yet complementary in their roles.

    Reply
    • Absolutely, the comparison table is a helpful visual representation of the unique characteristics of Abstraction and Encapsulation. It clarifies the methods used and the level at which they are implemented.

      Reply
  3. The detailed explanation of what Abstraction and Encapsulation are, along with their comparison, provides a comprehensive understanding of their significance. It’s interesting to see how they interact at different levels in OOP.

    Reply
    • Absolutely, the comparison helps clarify the distinct roles of Abstraction and Encapsulation, highlighting their significance in simplifying systems and protecting data in OOP.

      Reply
  4. The comparison of methods used to achieve Abstraction and Encapsulation is insightful. Understanding how these methods are implemented and the role they play in simplifying systems and protecting data is fundamental in OOP.

    Reply
    • Indeed, the methods used for Abstraction and Encapsulation are crucial to understanding their significance in object-oriented programming. They each have a distinct role in simplifying systems and protecting data.

      Reply
    • Agreed, the methods used to achieve Abstraction and Encapsulation are essential to how they are implemented and their impact on simplifying complex systems and ensuring data security.

      Reply
  5. The explanation of data abstraction and encapsulation provides a comprehensive understanding of how these concepts operate. Understanding the relationship between the two is key to grasping their significance in object-oriented programming.

    Reply
    • Absolutely, the detailed explanation of these concepts helps in gaining a deeper understanding of their roles and how they contribute to the integrity of object-oriented programming.

      Reply
    • Agreed, the relationship between Abstraction and Encapsulation is critical to understanding how they work together to simplify complex systems and protect data.

      Reply
  6. Abstraction and Encapsulation are two major concepts of Object-Oriented Programming. ‘Abstraction’ focuses on hiding unwanted data, while ‘Encapsulation’ covers data under a single unit. It’s interesting to see how these two concepts serve different purposes in OOP.

    Reply
  7. The detailed explanation of what Abstraction and Encapsulation are and how they operate provides valuable insights into their significance in object-oriented programming. It’s interesting to see how they operate at different levels and serve different purposes.

    Reply
    • Absolutely, the distinction between Abstraction and Encapsulation in terms of their functioning and methods used is quite enlightening. They are essential concepts in OOP.

      Reply
    • Indeed, understanding the significance of Abstraction and Encapsulation is crucial in grasping their roles in OOP. This detailed explanation helps clarify their unique characteristics.

      Reply
  8. Abstraction is all about simplifying complex systems by breaking them down, while Encapsulation focuses on protecting data and preventing unauthorized access. The comparison of methods used to achieve these two concepts is quite insightful.

    Reply
    • Absolutely, the methods used to implement Abstraction and Encapsulation are crucial to understanding these concepts. It’s interesting to see how they differ in terms of their level of implementation as well.

      Reply
  9. I particularly find the comparison between Abstraction and Encapsulation very enlightening. Abstraction solves issues at the Design level, while Encapsulation comes into play at the Implementation level. It’s fascinating to see how these two work together in this context.

    Reply
    • Yes, it’s essential to understand the finer details of Abstraction and Encapsulation to gain a deeper understanding of Object-Oriented Programming. The comparison helps illustrate their distinct roles.

      Reply
  10. Encapsulation makes programs and applications easier to use and understand by hiding the internal details and mechanics of the system from the user. Access modifiers play a crucial role in deciding data access, ensuring data protection.

    Reply
    • Agreed, the use of access modifiers in Encapsulation is key to ensuring data protection. It’s fascinating to see how it simplifies the understanding of complex systems as well.

      Reply
    • Indeed, Encapsulation ensures that data is enclosed and protected from unauthorized access, maintaining the integrity of the system.

      Reply

Leave a Comment

Want to save this article for later? Click the heart in the bottom right corner to save to your own articles box!