Difference Between Book Value and Market Value

In the field of business and share markets, two things come into the limelight. The first one is the book value, and the second is the market value.

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A building jointly owned is called office________.

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__________ scale firms enjoy economies of scale.

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Book Value vs Market Value

The difference between book value and market value is where the book value of something is the amount of money associated initially with making the product. It can be said as the summation of all products and services that were used to make the product. On the other hand, the market value of a product is the price that can be generated upon selling the product to the buyers—the buyers at a marketplace. 

Book Value vs Market Value

The book value, in simplest terms, is the original price of a product. However, any discounts or extra expenses for the product, interest associated with it aren’t concerned.

The market value of something is the portion of the cash that can be generated by selling a specific commodity. A characteristic of competition is present within it. Here a certain amount of revenue can also be assumed.

Comparison Table

Parameters of Comparison Book ValueMarket Value
DefinitionIt is the actual price of a commodityIt is the price at which the commodity is sold at a marketplace
PriceThis is mostly lower than the market valueIt is mostly higher than than the book value
Competition involvedThere is no competition involved in itIt involves competition among various companies. 
InclusionIt doesn’t include depreciation or interest. It includes all the costs along with the profit. 
Formula Total assets – liabilitiesMarket price × number of shares

What is Book Value? 

The book value of something in simplest terms is the original price of a product. However, any discounts or extra fees for the product, interest associated with it aren’t concerned.

A sheet that is used to calculate the balance contains all the expenses that were used while making a particular product. This however is quite exclusive in a way that it doesn’t contain any interests that were incurred or any discounts.

The book value of a product is usually higher in amount than the value in which a product is sold at a market. Two conditions might arise; the first one is when the book value is lower or higher than the value at the market.

The formula to calculate this is adding the actual expenses minus the fluctuations in values or extra cost associated with the production. 

It is pretty different from the mv as here there is no competition. This value can usually be associated with the more considerable property.

What is Market Value? 

The market value of something can be said to be the portion of the cash that can be generated by selling a specific commodity. A characteristic of competition is present within it.

The market value is greater than the book value. A quantity that is called the p divided by b is used to compare the two terms. The phrase capitalization in the market also recognizes it.

In this, there is an amount of profit that is associated with it. Two situations might arise; the first one is when the market value is higher and lower than the book value.

There are undoubtedly different methods over which this value can be calculated. These include an income approach that has within it the dcf method along with the cem (capitalized earning). 

The second type of approach is the market approach that includes within it the PCC and the precedent transactions. This is a fundamental method by which the value of an asset can be calculated.

Main Differences Between Book Value and Market Value

  1. The book value is exclusive of any reduction or interest. At the same time, the market value includes everything along with the extra profit. 
  2. The formula of book value is total assets minus liabilities. Whereas formula for market value is the price of something multiplied by its number, be it commodity or shares.

References 

  1. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3666236
  2. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/03074350910923491/full/html
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