Difference Between Book Value and Market Value (With Table)

In the field of business and share markets, two things come into the limelight. The first one is the book value, and the second is the market value. Both these terms are used to determine the amount of profit or gain associated with a particular product. The book value of something means the price of something as per the cost of things used to make it. On the other hand, the market value of something means the amount of cash or money a product can generate upon being sold to the public. Both of these differ in many parameters.

Book Value vs Market Value

The main difference between book value and market value is where the book value of something is the amount of money associated initially with making the product. It can be said as the summation of all products and services that were used to make the product. On the other hand, the market value of a product is the price that can be generated upon selling the product to the buyers—the buyers at a marketplace. 

The book value, in simplest terms, is the original price of a product. However, any discounts or extra expenses for the product, interest associated with it aren’t concerned. This can also be said to be the plotted value over a balanced paper. A balance paper/ sheet includes a summation of all the expenditures that were encompassed while making a particular commodity. Also, the mental expense or the portion of planning used to create something isn’t confined to it. 

The market value of something is the portion of the cash that can be generated by selling a specific commodity. A characteristic of competition is present within it. Here a certain amount of revenue can also be assumed. The market value is greater than the book value. A quantity that is called the p divided by b, is used to compare the two terms. The phrase capitalization in the market also recognizes it.

Comparison Table Between Book Value and Market Value

Parameters of Comparison Book ValueMarket Value
DefinitionIt is the actual price of a commodityIt is the price at which the commodity is sold at a marketplace
PriceThis is mostly lower than the market valueIt is mostly higher than than the book value
Competition involvedThere is no competition involved in itIt involves competition among various companies. 
InclusionIt doesn’t include depreciation or interest. It includes all the costs along with the profit. 
Formula Total assets – liabilitiesMarket price × number of shares

What is Book Value? 

The book value of something in simplest terms is the original price of a product. However, any discounts or extra fees for the product, interest associated with it aren’t concerned. This can also be said to be the plotted value over a balanced paper. 

A sheet that is used to calculate the balance contains all the expenses that were used while making a particular product. This however is quite exclusive in a way that it doesn’t contain any interests that were incurred or any discounts. Also, any mental efforts that were put in aren’t included in the book price of something. 

The book value of a product is usually higher in amount than the value in which a product is sold at a market. Two conditions might arise; the first one is when the book value is lower or higher than the value at the market. If a good amount of money is made, the book value can be more because there can be more investment. 

The formula to calculate this is adding the actual expenses minus the fluctuations in values or extra cost associated with the production. 

It is pretty different from the mv as here there is no competition. This value can usually be associated with the more considerable property. It is essential as it shows the actual view of the worth of the company.  It also helps to plan strategies.

What is Market Value? 

The market value of something can be said to be the portion of the cash that can be generated by selling a specific commodity. A characteristic of competition is present within it. Here a certain amount of revenue can also be assumed. 

The market value is greater than the book value. A quantity that is called the p divided by b is used to compare the two terms. The phrase capitalization in the market also recognizes it.

In this, there is an amount of profit that is associated with it. Two situations might arise; the first one is when the market value is higher and lower than the book value. And the second is when both are similar in value. 

However, companies try to make the mv higher. This value is essential as it provides an insight into what the product is worth. The buyers and the sellers both agree on the mv of the commodity. This is the average of both the values that both parties want. 

There are undoubtedly different methods over which this value can be calculated. These include an income approach that has within it the dcf method along with the cem (capitalized earning). 

The second type of approach is the market approach that includes within it the PCC and the precedent transactions. This is a fundamental method by which the value of an asset can be calculated.

Main Differences Between Book Value and Market Value

  1. The book value of something means the actual value of that thing, which depends upon the number of assets associated with it. A market value, on the other hand, is the value of an item upon being sold at a market. 
  2. The book value is mostly lower than the mv. However, the market value is mostly higher than the bid. 
  3. There is no factor of competition in the book value of something, whereas In determining the market value, there is a massive amount of competition. 
  4. The book value is exclusive of any reduction or interest. At the same time, the market value includes everything along with the extra profit. 
  5. The formula of book value is total assets minus liabilities. Whereas formula for market value is the price of something multiplied by its number, be it commodity or shares.

Conclusion

Share marketing and businesses have become a vital profession. If someone wants to get into any one of these, they should have proper knowledge regarding the various terms associated with them. Many people consider it to be a somewhat risky form of investment. But if sone with an appropriate mind, it will help to generate a tremendous amount of profit. 

The two terms, namely the book value and the market value, are critical in determining the worth of a particular asset. Though both of them differ within specific parameters, such as their definition, Inclusiveness, and function, their importance is still immense today.

References 

  1. https://www.jstor.org/stable/3666236
  2. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/03074350910923491/full/html
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