Cassandra vs MongoDB: Difference and Comparison

With the advancement of technology, mankind has been blessed with mobile phones, wireless networks, and above all, the Internet. The Internet is rife with volumes of data that are just a click away from us.

Such overwhelming volumes of data are electronically stored in a database, which is, in turn, controlled by a database management system (DBMS). Cassandra and MongoDB happen to be two such databases.

Key Takeaways

  1. Cassandra excels in handling large writes volumes, providing high availability and fault tolerance.
  2. MongoDB is a document-oriented database, making it ideal for handling unstructured data and providing flexibility in data models.
  3. Both databases offer horizontal scalability but differ in their query languages, with Cassandra using CQL and MongoDB using BSON.

Cassandra vs MongoDB

Cassandra is an open-source NoSQL distributed database that supports data storage and management across commodity servers. It has a peer-to-peer architecture. MongoDB is a document store database that works with collections containing multiple documents and has a master-slave architecture.

Cassandra vs MongoDB
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Cassandra is an open-source NoSQL database and uses a “peer-to-peer” architecture model.

Owing to this feature, Cassandra does not have one master node but multiple master nodes inside a cluster, and therefore, even if one master node goes down, there are multiple master nodes that can take over and ensure that the database responds to all requests at all points of time.

Furthermore, only the master node can write and accept input, and Cassandra uses the cluster model, which means that multiple master nodes can write and accept input. It is due to this model that Cassandra provides high data availability and flexible scalability.

MongoDB is also an open-source NoSQL database and is based on the “master-slave” model.

Consequently, when the master node is unable to function, a slave node can assume the role of the master node, but this transition takes a few minutes, and during this period, the database is not in a position to respond to requests.

This affects the data availability. MongoDB is also limited in terms of scalability since only the master node can write and accept inputs and the slave nodes come in handy only for reads. 

Comparison Table

Parameter of ComparisonCassandraMongoDB
Data ModelIt is a hybrid between key-value and a table structure that uses rows and columnsIt has an object and document-oriented data model
Programming Language SupportSupports C++, Python, Java, JavaScript, .Net, Ruby, PHP, Scala, Perl, C#, Clojure, Go, Erlang, HaskellSupports C, C++, C#, Clojure, ColdFusion, Dart, Delphi, Ruby, Python, Scala, JavaScript, Java, Erlang, Go, Groovy, Haskell, PHP, Perl, Lisp, Lua, MatLab, PowerShell, Prolong, Smalltalk
Aggregation FrameworkDoes not have an aggregation framework but requires the assistance of external tools like Hadoop, Apache Spark, etc.It has a built-in aggregation framework
SchemaIt has flexible schema, therefore, each row within the same column family need not have the same number of columnsIn the newer version of MongoDB, one can decide whether or not they want schema, making the database much more flexible
Query Language SupportCassandra Query Language (CQL) is Cassandra’s very own query languageIt does not have a query language yet, but it uses JSON-structure   

What is Cassandra?

Cassandra was developed by Facebook for the purpose of inbox search and was released in 2008. It became an Apache project in 2009 and came to be known as Apache Cassandra.

Cassandra is a NoSQL database that uses a basic data structure comprising column families, rows, columns, and keyspace to store data. As Cassandra has a flexible schema, the rows within the same column family can have different numbers of columns.

Each node in the cluster of nodes in Cassandra has the same functions and receives all types of requests. Cassandra does not use the “master-slave” model but uses the idea of a “coordinator node.”

This means that when the client issues a request, the node that receives the request is the coordinator for the specific request and coordinates the exchange of response from the node that actually contains the information to the client’s request to send the result to the client.

A few prominent users of Cassandra are Netflix, Twitter, Viocom Hosting, Walmart Labs, Spotify, Reddit, Instagram, and Facebook.

What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is a NoSQL database that was developed by 10gen, presently known as MongoDB, Inc., in 2007 to address issues concerning scalability.

As it is a document-oriented database, the primary structure used for data storage is in the form of documents. In this context, the document is the basic structure that is used to store a single unit of data.

Due to the lack of schema, documents are stored with different structures and contents, all in the same collection. The documents in MongoDB use JSON as its query language, therefore, its model can also support object-oriented programming.

MongoDB is based on a master-slave model, as a result of which, if the master node stops functioning, the database will stop functioning for a few minutes. To remedy this, MongoDB has a replica set that consists of a master node or the primary node and all the secondary nodes.

This makes the master node the recipient of all the requests posed by the client, and it also stores all the changes in its operation log. The slave nodes use the primary node’s operation log and replicate the changes onto their copies of the data to maintain consistency.

If the primary node dies, MongoDB uses a communication protocol called “heartbeat” and “elections.”

At an interval of two seconds, the members of the replica set send heartbeats to each other, if one member fails to answer within ten seconds, it is considered to be dead, and the secondary nodes are informed about it.

Following this, the replica set holds an election and votes to select the secondary node that will become the new primary node.  The secondary node with the highest vote wins the election.

In case of a tie, there is a third kind of node, known as the Arbiter, that decides which secondary node will become the primary. Abode, Google, Forbes, Facebook, eBay, BOSH, and Cisco are some of the prominent users of MongoDB.

Main Differences Between Cassandra and MongoDB

  1. While Cassandra uses a tabular structure to store data, MongoDB uses an objective and data-oriented model.
  2. Cassandra uses a cluster of nodes to ensure high data availability. Whereas MongoDB uses a single master node, thereby limiting its data availability.
  3. Cassandra provides flexible scalability as all the nodes in the ring are equal. In contrast, MongoDB does not offer flexible scalability, as it has one master node to store all the data.
  4. Cassandra does not have an in-built aggregation framework, therefore, it relies on external tools. Whereas MongoDB has an internal aggregation framework that is most suitable for small and medium-sized data traffic.
  5. While Cassandra offers components like memory tables, commit logs, cluster, data centers and node, MongoDB supports ad-hoc queries, file storage, collections, replication and transactions.
References
  1. https://dl.acm.org/doi/abs/10.1145/1773912.1773922
  2. https://bora.uib.no/bora-xmlui/bitstream/handle/1956/17228/kb-thesis.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Last Updated : 19 July, 2023

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22 thoughts on “Cassandra vs MongoDB: Difference and Comparison”

  1. The article provides a comprehensive analysis of Cassandra and MongoDB, shedding light on their architecture, query language support, and practical applications. The depth of information makes it an excellent reference for individuals interested in database management systems.

  2. The article explains the technical details of Cassandra and MongoDB in a clear and concise manner. The comparison between the two databases is very helpful for anyone working with data management systems and databases.

    1. I found the explanation on the data model, programming language support, and query language support to be particularly insightful. This article is an excellent resource for those interested in understanding the differences between Cassandra and MongoDB.

  3. The in-depth analysis of Cassandra and MongoDB, along with the comparison table, makes this article a valuable reference for individuals seeking to enhance their understanding of database management systems. The article is well-structured and informative.

    1. The explanation of Cassandra’s coordinator node concept and MongoDB’s document-oriented structure is particularly enlightening. This article serves as a valuable resource for technology professionals and enthusiasts alike.

  4. Avatar of Teagan Stewart
    Teagan Stewart

    The article meticulously explores the technical intricacies of Cassandra and MongoDB, offering a nuanced comparison of their features and capabilities. The explanation of query language support and real-world applications is particularly enlightening.

    1. Avatar of Richards Olivia
      Richards Olivia

      I found the discussion on the schema and aggregation framework to be thought-provoking. This article is a valuable resource for individuals involved in designing and managing database systems.

  5. The article presents a comprehensive study of Cassandra and MongoDB, elucidating their architecture and distinct features. The comparison table encapsulates key differences, making it an informative read for technology professionals and database administrators.

    1. The article effectively highlights the strengths of Cassandra in handling large write volumes and the flexibility of MongoDB in managing unstructured data. This is essential information for individuals working with data and databases.

  6. Avatar of Fiona Mitchell
    Fiona Mitchell

    The article offers a comprehensive comparison of Cassandra and MongoDB, highlighting their strengths and differences. The information is presented in a way that is both accessible and informative for readers from a technical background.

    1. Avatar of Robinson Christopher
      Robinson Christopher

      The details provided about query language support and the origin of Cassandra and MongoDB are enlightening. This is a valuable resource for technology enthusiasts and software developers.

    2. Avatar of Connor Robinson
      Connor Robinson

      I found the section outlining the key users of Cassandra and MongoDB to be interesting. It provides real-world examples of where these databases are utilized and showcases their practical applications.

  7. The article provides a deep dive into the key features and functionality of Cassandra and MongoDB. The technical nuances and the comparison table make it easier to comprehend the distinctions between these databases.

    1. I appreciate the detailed explanation of parameters such as data model, aggregation framework, and schema. This analysis is valuable for professionals and developers working with NoSQL databases.

  8. The article delivers a detailed account of Cassandra and MongoDB, outlining their functionality and architectural differences. The depth of information provided makes it a valuable resource for professionals seeking to analyze and compare these databases.

    1. The section on programming language support and schema offers valuable insight into the technical aspects of Cassandra and MongoDB. This article is a commendable contribution to understanding NoSQL databases.

  9. The article delves into the specifics of Cassandra and MongoDB, giving readers a thorough understanding of their architecture and functionality. The insights provided are beneficial for professionals involved in data management and database operations.

    1. I found the details about the companies using Cassandra and MongoDB to be intriguing. This article offers valuable insights into the real-world applications of these databases for diverse organizations.

    2. The comparison of Cassandra’s peer-to-peer architecture with MongoDB’s master-slave model is well-explained. This article is an excellent guide for those looking to comprehend the nuances of these databases.

  10. The article provides a comprehensive and detailed comparison of Cassandra and MongoDB, their features, and their functionality. This is especially useful for developers and technology professionals who want to understand the differences between these two popular database management systems.

    1. Absolutely. The article helps in clarifying important aspects such as data model, programming language support, schema, and query language support. This is essential for professionals working with these databases.

    2. I couldn’t agree more. This is a very informative and well-researched article that sheds light on the key aspects of Cassandra and MongoDB. The comparison table is particularly helpful in understanding the differences between the two databases.

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